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Resources in New York Public Libraries
Serials and Monographs: Politics
Aborigines Protection Society. The treatment of natives in
the Congo; a statement submitted to His Majesty's government on
behalf of the Aborigines Protection Society. [London, 1902].
10 l. 34 cm. H. R. Fox Bourne, secretary of the Aborigines Protection
Society and the writer of this document, was a knowledgeable and
highly-respected opponent of Leopold's. A historian and essayist,
he wrote articles on the Congo for the Times in London.
Burrows, Guy and Edgar Canisius. The curse of Central Africa.
With which is incorporated A campaign amongst cannibals by
Edgar Canisius ... With coloured map and numerous illustrations
from unique and valuable photographs taken by the author and others.
London, R. A. Everett & co., ltd., 1903. xxviii, , 276 p., 1
., viii p., 1 .,  p. incl. front., illus., ports. plates, fold.
map. 26 cm.
Burrows had worked for Henry Morton Stanley, and wrote an adventure
travel book called In the land of the Pigmies, to which Stanley
had written the introduction. He, like many other former soldiers,
was later made an official of the Congo Free State. Edgar Canisius
was a soldier in the Force Publique. This book, which criticizes
the King and his agents in no uncertain terms, is an insider's -
indeed, an administrator's - view of the mistreatment of the Congo
natives. Canisius described a six-week campaign that he participated
in during which his unit killed 900 Congolese. When this book came
out it, especially Canisius's testimony, was quoted in all the newspapers
and referred to in official documents and in speeches made by members
of the Congo Reform Movement.
Congo Reform Association. Will civilisation hearken? The appeal
of fifty-two pioneers of Christianity on the Congo, comprising Englishmen,
Canadians, Americans, Germans, Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians. Liverpool:
John Richardson & Sons, Printers, 1906. 8 p. Prefatory material
by E.D. Morel.
The Congo Reform Association was modeled on the organizations
of the Abolitionist movement. National chapters were formed in England,
the United States, and several European countries, especially the
Scandinavian countries. The national chapters were broken down into
local chapters, facilitating grass-roots and direct action advocacy.
Some of these local chapters held meetings that attracted up to
5,000 people, often with prominent clergymen, members of Parliament,
Congressmen, Peers of the Realm, and other celebrities sharing the
dais. These celebrities also lent their names to the C.R.A.'s petitions
and fund-raising campaigns, in some cases publishing pamphlets of
their own (see Twain and Doyle, below). The Association published
heavily and lobbied the United States and English governments, agitating
for U.S.-British intervention on behalf of the Congolese.
Doyle, Arthur Conan, Sir, 1859-1930. The crime of the Congo.
New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, c1909. 128 p. 21 cm.
Morel, E. D. The Congo slave state: a protest against the new
African slavery; and an appeal to the public of Great Britain, of
the United States, and of the continent of Europe. Liverpool:
J. Richardson & Sons, Printers, 1903. 112 p. illus. (maps) 25 cm.
Morel, E. D. King Leopold's rule in Africa. London: W.
Heinemann, 1904. xxiv, 466 p. front., plates, ports., 2 maps (1
fold.) 23 cm.
Morel, E. D. Red rubber; the story of the rubber slave trade
flourishing on the Congo in the year of grace 1906. London:
T. Fisher Unwin, 1906. 213 p. Also published in New York by The
Morel, the leader of the Congo Reform Movement, was an amazingly
prolific writer. He put out a monthly magazine, a weekly newspaper,
and usually wrote one or two books a year, as well as innumerable
pamphlets, speeches, and letters to the editor. His correspondence
is reportedly massive. In 1904 or 1905, Morel met a missionary named
Alice Seeley Harris, whose photographs Morel published in his books
and projected (as lantern slides) in his lectures. These photographs
are now held in the archives of the Anti-Slavery League in London.
One might expect the New York Public Library to hold copies of some
of these widely printed photos (some were also published in Mark
Twain's King Leopold's soliloquy, for example), but such is not
Sheppard, William Henry. Presbyterian pioneers in Congo;
introduction by S.H. Chester. Kentucky: Pentecostal Publishing Company,
1900. 157 p. : ill. ; 18 cm.
Sheppard was among the many Presbyterian missionaries in the Congo
who became politicized because of the atrocities that they witnessed.
Sheppard's unique perspective, however, is that he was black. This
book, and the many pamphlets and open letters that he later wrote,
incorporate a sensitivity to the rights of the Congo natives absent
in even the most vociferous white Congo reform writers.
Starr, Frederick. The truth about the Congo; the Chicago tribune
articles. Chicago: Forbes & company, 1907. viii, 129 p., plates.
Starr wrote 15 articles for the Chicago Tribune, reprinted
here in book form, refuting charges against King Leopold, the Force
Publique, and the rubber companies. Starr, an anthropologist who
believed in the inferiority of "primitive" peoples, gained his knowledge
about the Congo after a year-long tour of the country paid for by
the King of the Belgians.
Twain, Mark. King Leopold's soliloquy: a defense of his Congo
rule. Mass.: P.R. Warren Co., 1905. Edition 2nd ed. 56 p., 
leaves of plates: ill.; 19 cm. "The publishers desire to state that
... it is [Mr. Clemens's] wish that all proceeds of sales ... shall
be used in furthering effort for relief of the people of the Congo
State. Boston, Mass., Jan. 1, 1906"--Label mounted on half-title
The AMNH copy of this small book is housed with a letter from
the Congo Reform Association exhorting the reader to take specific
advocacy steps on behalf of the Congolese, such as organizing meetings
and writing letters to Congressmen. A transcript and facsimile of
this book is available online:
United States. Dept. of State. Conditions in the independent
state of the Kongo. [Washington, 1906-08?]. 4 v. in 1. 34 cm.
This is a collection of State Department documents bound together
in chronological order. It includes eyewitness reports of the practices
of the rubber companies, correspondence between the British Foreign
Office and the State Department, and reports of the American consul-general
in the Congo. It is a revealing look at the diplomatic pressures
that the United States and Britain brought to bear on King Leopold
and the Belgians.
Herausgegeben, eingeleitet und kommentiert von Rold Italiaander.
Konig Leopolds Kongo, Dokumente und Pamphlete
von Mark Twain, Edmund D. Morel, Roger Casement. Rutten + Loening Verlag Munchen, 1964.