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Congo bibliography: Amphibia

  1. Angel, Fernand. 1944. Contribution a l'etude de la faune herpetologique du Sahara central. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. XVI, no. 6: p. 418-19.
  2. . 1933. Les serpents de l'Afrique occidentale française. Paris: Larose.
  3. . 1936. Sur quelques formes nouvelles de reptiles et de batraciens du Sahara central. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. LXI: p. 273-7.
  4. Angel, Fernand, and H. Lhote. 1938. Reptiles et amphibiens du Sahara central et du Soudan. Bull. Com. A. O. F. XXI: p. 345-84.
  5. Biebuyck, D. P. The frog and other animals in Lega art and initiation: Africa-Tervuren 25(3) 1979: 76-84, Illustr.
  6. Boulenger, George Albert. 1909. Pisces, batrachia, and reptilia. Ruwenzori Expedition, 1905-06. Reports, 15. London: Zoological Society of London.
  7. Boulenger, George Albert, and Oldfield Thomas. 1901. Batraciens et reptiles nouveaux. Annales Du Musée Du Congo. Zoologie--: Annales Du Musée Du Congo, t. 2, fasc. 1. Bruxelles.
  8. De Bruyn, L., M. Kazadi, and J. Hulselmans. Diet of Xenopus fraseri (Anura, Pipidae): Journal of Herpetology 30(1), March 1996: 82-85, Illustr.
  9. de Smet, W. H O. Hemoglobin polymorphism in Bufo regularis (Amphibia, Anura) from the Bas-Zaire (Zaire): Acta Zoologica Et Pathologica Antverpiensia No. 77 1983: 13-18, Illustr.
  10. Fain, A., and R. Tinsley C. A new Xenopacarus (Acari, Ereynetidae) from the nasal cavities of Xenopus sp. (fraseri group), with a discussion on the evolution host-parasite: Journal of African Zoology 107(6), 22 December 1993: 513-517, Illustr.
  11. Fischberg, M., B. Colombelli, and J. Picard J. Diagnose preliminaire d'une espece nouvelle de Xenopus du Zaire: Alytes (Paris) 1(4) 1982: 53-55, Illustr.
  12. Graber, M. Parasites internes des vertebres domestiques et sauvages, autres que les primates de la Republique Populaire du Congo (d'apres la collection Cassard-Chambron, 1956-1960). Role pathogene - prophylaxie: Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 34(2) 1981: 155-167.
  13. Inger, Robert F. 1968. Amphibia. Exploration Du Parc National De La Garamba. Mission H. De Saeger, fasc. 52. Kinshasa: République démocratique du Congo, Institut des parcs nationaux.
  14. Jackson, J. A., and R. C. Tinsley. 1998. Hymenochirine Anurans (Pipidae) as Transport Hosts in Camallanid Nematode Life-Cycles. Systematic Parasitology 39, no. 2: 141-51.
    Abstract: A parasitological survey of aquatic hymenochirine toads (Pipidae) from tropical Africa indicated the occurrence of camallanid larvae in these hosts is a regular ecological phenomenon. Pseudhymenochirus merlini at one site in western Sierra Leone was infected by third-stage larvae of a Camallanus species occurring in the intestine. Third- and fourth-stage larvae of a distinct Camallanus species occurred in the stomach and intestine of P. merlini at another locality, also in western Sierra Leone. An imported pet trade consignment of Hymenochirus curtipes from Nigeria contained third-stage procamallanine larvae, some of which showed morphological changes preceding the third moult. Comparable specimens occurred in museum collections of H. boettgeri from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Procamallanines were localised in the host's stomach. The morphology of camallanid larvae recovered is described, and their possible relationships considered. Predation on hymenochirines might present an important transmission route for these parasites between copepod intermediate hosts and larger aquatic predators. However, the final hosts and their trophic relationships with hymenochirines are unknown. Regardless of its significance for transmission, the survival ability of lan al stages in non-definitive host vertebrates might have predisposed camallanid lineages to evolutionary host changes and contributed to the wide dispersal of the family.
  15. . 1998. Paramphistome Digeneans From Xenopus Species (Pipidae) in Africa: Taxonomy, Host-Specificity and Biogeography. Systematic Parasitology 40, no. 2: 143-60.
    Abstract: The taxonomy, host range and geographical distribution of paramphistome digeneans from Xenopus spp. in sub-Saharan Africa are reviewed. Two representatives of Progonimodiscus Vercammen-Grandjean, 1960 are recognised, both of which are narrowly or primarily specific to Xenopns. An analysis of morphometric and meristic characters indicated geographical variation in Progonimodiscus doyeri (Ortlepp, 1926), with two allopatric forms showing significant, but continuous, variation in testis size and vitelline follicle number. P. colubrifer n. sp. is distinguished from P. doyeri by the form of muscular elevations on the acetabulum accessory peduncle. It infects Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis-like toads from lowland tropical rain forest zones in Nigeria, Togo and the Ivory Coast, while P. doyeri occurs in hosts of the subgenus Xenopus from a wide variety of biotypes. Previous literature records indicate the presence of the southern P. doyeri morphological variant in X. laevis laevis in South Africa and Zimbabwe and the northern variant in X. l. victorianus, X. fraseri aff. and X. muelleri in the Democratic Republic of Congo, X. wittei in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the ranid Conraua crassipes in Cameroon (the only record of Progonimoniscus from a non-pipid host). New host and/or geographical records for this species are of the northern form in X. l. victorianus, X. l. bunyoniensis and X. vestitus in Uganda, X. l. sudanensis in Cameroon, X. borealis in Kenya, X. pygmaeus in the Democratic Republic of Congo, X. fraseri aff. in Cameroon, X. wittei aff. in the Democratic Republic of Congo and X. muelleri in Cameroon and Nigeria. While the geographical limits of the two P. doyeri variants are not known with precision, existing data are consistent with a "turnover" in the region of 15 degrees S, where a notable discontinuity occurs in the distributions of other Xenopus parasites. Species of Diplodiscus Diesing, 1836 in Xenopus hosts are rare. Diplodiscus peregrinator n. sp. was recovered from X. tropicalis at a single locality in the Ivory Coast and distinguished by a combination of body size, egg size, genital pore position and acetabulum morphology. D. fischthalicus Meskal, 1970 was not found during the present study.
  16. Jackson, J. A, and R. Tinsley C. Representatives of Batrachocamallanus n. g. (Nematoda: Procamallaninae) from Xenopus spp. (Anura: Pipidae): geographical distribution, host range and evolutionary relationships: Systematic Parasitology 31(3), July 1995: 159-188, Illustr.
  17. Jackson, J. A., and R. C. Tinsley. 1998. Reproductive Interference in Concurrent Infections of Two Protopolystoma Species (Monogenea : Polystomatidae). International Journal for Parasitology 28, no. 8: 1201-4.
    Abstract: The prevention of interspecific reproductive interference is one possible explanation for spatial niche, divergence between congeneric monogeneans. However, there is little direct evidence that reproductive interactions with other species are potentially deleterious to the majority of parasitic platyhelminths. Xenopus fraseri-like clawed toads from lowland rainforest in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo are infected by:two species of polystomatid monogenean, Protopolystoma fissilis and Protopolystoma ramulosus. Both occur as adults in the host urinary bladder, and exhibit identical copulatory structures and similar body sizes. The small area of the habitat in relation to parasite body size makes close proximity inevitable in concurrent infections. Eggs were collected: from five naturally infected hosts: two of these harboured concurrent infections, and three were infected with P. fissilis only. Eggs from concurrent infections showed reduced viability (57.6% embryonation, n = 413) compared with those from P. fissilis-only infections (85.2%, n = 439). This effect may be due to some form of reproductive interference, possibly failure to develop following interspecific cross-fertilisation. (C) 1998 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
  18. Kuhn, E. R, H. Gevaerts, G. Jacobs, and G. Vandorpe. Reproductive cycle, thyroxine and corticosterone in females of the giant swamp frog Dicroglossus occipitalis at the equator: General and Comparative Endocrinology 66(1) 1987: 137-144, Illustr.
  19. Kuhn, E. R, H. Gevaerts, G. Vandorpe, and G. Jacobs. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and thyroxine in males of the giant swamp frog Dicroglossus occipitalis at the equator: General and Comparative Endocrinology 68(3) 1987: 492-493, Illustr.
  20. Kuhn, E. R., G. Jacobs, and G. Vandorpe. Thyroid function and a possible thyroidal-gonadal interaction in reproduction and circannual rhythmicity: Fortschritte Der Zoologie 38 1990: 3-27, Illustr.
  21. Largen, M., and Francoise Dowsett Lemaire. Amphibians (Anura) from the Kouilou River Basin, Republique du Congo: Tauraco Research Report No. 4 1991: 145-168, Illustr.
  22. Laurent, R. F. 1956. Contribution a l'herpetologie de la region des Grnds Lacs de l'Afrique centrale. Publ. Mus. Roy. Afr. Cent. Tervuren. Tervuren: Musee Royale d'Afrique Centrale.
    Abstract: I: Generalites.
    II: Cheloniens
    III: Ophidiens du Congo oriental
  23. Laurent, R. F. Description de deux Hyperolius nouveaux du Sankuru (Zaire) (Amphibia, Hyperoliidae): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 93(4) 1979: 779-791, Illustr.
  24. . Deux lezards interessants de la cuvette centrale zairoise: Revue De Zoologie Africaine 96(2) 1982: 439-444, Illustr.
  25. . Essai de caracterisation morphometrique des deux especes du genre Nectophryne Buchholz et Peters (Anura, Bufonidae): Revue Suisse De Zoologie 94(4) 1987: 647-653, Illustr.
  26. Laurent, R. F. Le genre Afrixalus Laurent (Hyperoliidae) en Afrique Centrale: Koninklijk Museum Voor Midden-Afrika Tervuren Belgie Annalen Zoologische Wetenschappen No. 235 1982: 1-58, Illustr.
  27. . 1943. Les Hyperolius de Musee du Congo. Publ. Mus. Roy. Afr. Cent. Tervuren. Tervuren: Musee Royale d'Afrique Centrale.
  28. . 1960. Notes complementaires sur les Cheloniens et les Ophidiens du COngo oriental. Publ. Mus. Roy. Afr. Cent. Tervuren. Tervuren: Musee Royale d'Afrique Centrale.
    Abstract: I: Generalites.
    II: Cheloniens
    III: Ophidiens du Congo oriental
  29. . Les rainettes du genre Hyperolius. Mem. Inst. Franc. Afr. Noire, 53.
  30. Loumont, C. Xenopus pygmaeus, a new diploid pipid frog from rain forest of equatorial Africa: Revue Suisse De Zoologie 93(3) 1986: 755-764, Illustr.
  31. Musée du Congo, ed. 1898. Annales Du Musée Du Congo. Bruxelles: Impr. Charles vande Weghe.
  32. Musée du Congo belge, ed. 1933. Annales Du Musée Du Congo Belge. Tervueren: Le Musée.
  33. . 1912. Annales Du Musée Du Congo Belge Matériaux Pour La Faune Du Congo. Tervuren: Le Musée.
  34. Noble, Gladwyn Kingsley. 1924. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collections of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part 3, Amphibia.James Paul Chapin, Herbert Lang, and American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 49, art. 2. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
  35. Ohler, A., and M. Kazadi. Description d'une nouvelle espece du genre Aubria Boulenger, 1917 (amphibiens, anoures) et redescription du type d'Aubria subsigillata (A. Dumeril, 1856): Alytes (Paris) 8(2) 1989[1990]: 25-40, Illustr.
  36. Perret, J. L. Description de Ptychadena ingeri n. sp. (Anura, Ranidae) du Zaire: Archives Des Sciences (Geneva) 44(3) 1991: 265-281, Illustr.
  37. Poynton, J. C, and D. Broadley G. Amphibia Zambesiaca. 3. Rhacophoridae and Hyperoliidae: Annals of the Natal Museum 28(1) 1987: 161-229, Illustr.
  38. Schiotz, A. On two Afrixalus (Anura) from central Zaire: Steenstrupia 8(11) 1982: 261-265, Illustr.
  39. Schmidt, Karl Patterson, and Robert F Inger. 1959. Amphibians exclusive of the general Afrixalus and Hyperolius.Exploration du Parc National Albert. Mission G. F. de Witte. Publ. Inst. Parcs Nat. Congo Belge, Fasc. 56. Tervuren.
  40. Tinsley, R. C., and J. A. Jackson. 1998. Speciation of Protopolystoma Bychowsky, 1957 (Monogenea : Polystomatidae) in Hosts of the Genus Xenopus (Anura : Pipidae). Systematic Parasitology 40, no. 2: 93-141.
    Abstract: The taxonomy, geographical distribution and host range of the polystomatid genus Protopolystoma Bychowsky, 1957 are reviewed. P. xenoyodis (Price, 1943) and five new species are recognised, which occur in clawed toads (Xenopus spp.) throughout subsaharan Africa. Of the two clawed toad subgenera, Xenopus and Silurana, only the former is infected. Protopolystoma spp. are differentiated by morphological variation of the gut, large hamulus and penis armature. P. xenopodis is found in Xenopus laevis subspecies in South Africa, Transkei, Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.), Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya and Cameroon (X. l. poweri and X. l. sudanensis are new host records). It also occurs in introduced populations of X. l. laevis in the United States (southern California) and United Kingdom (South Wales). In subsaharan Africa the species displays significant, but continuous, geographical variation of penis spine size between southern populations in X. l. laevis and those in more northerly host subspecies. Data on the natural host range of this parasite were complemented by an experimental study of host-specificity in the southern form. This can produce patent infections in X. l. victorianus and X. gilli, but not X. wittei nor X. (Silurana) tropicalis. P. simplicis n. sp. is endemic to central and east African areas, infecting X. laevis subspecies in eastern D.R.C., Rwanda, Uganda and western Kenya, X. wittei-like hosts in eastern D.R.C., western Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, X. vestitus in western Uganda and Xenopus sp. at Nairobi, Kenya. P. ramulosus n. sp. occurs in X. fraseri-like toads in eastern D.R.C. (Gabon and Cameroon are also possible literature records), and P. fissilis n. sp. is found in X. fraseri- and X. wittei-like species in Cameroon and eastern D.R.C., and in southern Rwanda, respectively. Two Protopolystoma taxa are found in X. muelleri populations now suspected to represent distinct species: P. occidentalis n. sp. occurs in X. muelleri (western form) in Ghana, Togo, Nigeria and Cameroon, while P. orientalis n. sp. is found in X. muelleri (eastern form) in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. The allopatrically distributed species P. ramulosus, P. simplicis, P. occidentalis and P. orientalis form a relatively homogenous grouping with some interspecific morphological overlap. These taxa are distinguished from P. xenopodis by penis spine morphology and from P. fissilis by hamulus root form and aspects of gut morphology. Unidentified Protopolystoma sp. have been recorded in X. clivii in Ethiopia, X. fraseri aff. in Cameroon and Xenopus sp. in Kenya and Tanzania. At some localities, single host species were infected by two representatives of Protopolystoma. P. fissilis was recorded in eastern D.R.C. with P. ramulosus, with Protopolystoma sp. in Cameroon in X. fraseri-like hosts and with P. simplicis in X. wittei-like hosts in Rwanda. P. xenopodis co-occurred with P. simplicis in X. laevis subspecies through central and east Africa.
  41. van Neer, W. Faunal remains from Matupi Cave, an Iron Age and Late Stone Age site in northeastern Zaire: Mededelingen Van De Koninklijke Academie Voor Wetenschappen Letteren En Schone Kunsten Van Belgie Klasse Der Wetenschappen 46(2) 1984: 57-76, Illustr.
  42. Vandorpe, G., E. Kuhn R, and H. Gevaerts. Failure to relate thyroid hormones and in vitro 51-monodeiodination activity to oocyte development and sex steroids in the giant swamp frog Dicroglossus occipitalis at the Equator: General and Comparative Endocrinology 79(3) 1990: 469-476, Illustr.
  43. Witte, Gaston-François de, and Henri Schouteden. 1934. Batraciens récoltés au Congo Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. de Witte. Annales Du Musée Du Congo Belge. C.-Zoologie. Série I - Tome III - Fascicule 4 (Pages 153 a 188 - Planches V-XI). Tervuren, Belgique: s. n.
  44. Witte, Gaston-François de, and Victor Émile van Straelen. 1941. Batraciens et reptiles. Institut Des Parcs Nationaux Du Congo Belge. Exploration Du Parc National Albert. Mission G.F. De Witte (1933-1935). Bruxelles: Impr. M. Hayez.