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Congo bibliography: Mammalia A-K

Mammalia L-Z

  1. Allen, Glover M. Glover Morrill. 1939. A checklist of African mammals. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, v. 83. Cambridge: The Museum.
  2. Allen, J. A. Joel Asaph. 1917. The American Museum Congo expedition collection of bats.Herbert Lang, and James Paul Chapin. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 37, article 18. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
    Abstract: Systematic list / J.A. Allen Notes on the distribution and ecology of Central African Chiroptera / Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin Field notes / Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin.
  3. . 1922. The American Museum Congo Expedition collection of Insectivora.Herbert Lang, James Paul Chapin, and American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 47, article 1. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
  4. . 1924. Carnivora collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition.Herbert Lang, James Paul Chapin, and American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 47, article 3. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
  5. . 1925. Primates collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition.Herbert Lang, James Paul Chapin, and American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 47, article 4. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
  6. . 1922. Sciuridae, Anomaluridae, and Idiuridae collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition.Herbert Lang, James Paul Chapin, and American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 47, article 2. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
  7. . 1917. The skeletal characters of Scutisorex Thomas .Herbert Lang, American Museum Congo Expedition, and James Paul Chapin. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 37, article 28. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
  8. Ammann, K. Rugabo versus Rugendo: Swara 12(5) 1989: 25-27, Illustr.
  9. Anciaux de Faveaux, M. Les cycles annuels de reproduction chez les chiropteres cavernicoles du Shaba (S-E Zaire) et du Rwanda: Mammalia 42(4) 1978: 453-490, Illustr.
  10. . Les cycles annuels de reproduction chez les chiropteres phytophiles au Shaba (S.E. Zaire) et au Rwanda: Koninklijk Museum Voor Midden-Afrika Tervuren Belgie Annalen Zoologische Wetenschappen 237 1983: 27-34, Illustr.
  11. . Notes eco-ethologiques et parasitologiques sur les chiropteres cavernicoles du Shaba (Zaire): International Journal of Speleology 10(3-4) 1978: 331-350, Illustr.
  12. Ancrenaz, M. Note d'espoir pour les pongides congolais: Cahiers D'ethologie Appliquee 11(1) 1991: 103-108, Illustr.
  13. . Projet de protection de l'environnement au sud Congo: Courrier De La Nature No. 129 1990: 29-32, Illustr.
  14. Ankei, Y. Nomenclatures comparees de mammiferes dans des langues bantoues: Songola (D-24) et Ombo (C-69): Journal D'agriculture Traditionnelle Et De Botanique Appliquee Travaux D'ethnobotanique Et D'ethnozoologie 33 1986[1988]: 243-253, Illustr.
  15. Anon. Menschen infizieren Gorillas: Kosmos (Stuttgart) 82(12) 1986: 36-37, Illustr.
  16. Anon. New pygmy elephant photos indicate separate species: Isc Newsletter 11(1) 1992(1996): 1-3, Illustr.
  17. Anon. With civil war over, mountain gorilla numbers are increasing: Audubon 1987(July) 1987: 20, Illustr.
  18. Ansell, W. F. H. William Frank Harding. 1989. African mammals, 1938-1988.Glover M. Glover Morrill Allen. St. Ives, Cornwall: Trendrine Press.
  19. . The southern limit of range of Cercocebus albigena johnstoni Lydekker: Mammalia 48(4) 1984[1985]: 610.
  20. Antoine, Philippe. Contribution a la connaissance du genre Incala J. Thomson (Coleoptera: Cetoniidae), 3. Le groupe d'Incala lineola Westwood: Journal of African Zoology 105(2) 1991: 147-156, Illustr.
  21. Atalia, M. Strategies for the conservation of rhino in Zaire: Ryder, O.a. [Ed.]. Rhinoceros Biology and Conservation. Proceedings of an International Conference, May 9-11, 1991, San Diego, California, Usa. Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego. 1993: I-V, 1-368. Chapter Pagination: 178-182, Illustr.
  22. Atlers, M., A. Blom, C. Sikubwabo Kiyengo, T. Masunda, and R. Barnes. Preliminary assessment of the status of the forest elephant in Zaire: African Journal of Ecology 30(4), December 1992: 279-291, Illustr.
  23. Attwater, M., H. Hudson, and S. Blake. Projet de protection de gorilles, Brazzaville, 1991: Gorilla Conservation News 6, August 1992: 6-7.
  24. Aveling, C., and R. Aveling. Gorilla conservation in Zaire: Oryx 23(4) 1989: 64-70, Illustr.
  25. Aveling, C., and A. Harcourt H. A census of the Virunga gorillas: Oryx 18(1) 1984: 8-13, Illustr.
  26. Aveling, R., and C. Aveling. Report from the Zaire Gorilla Conservation Project: Primate Conservation No. 8 1987: 162-164, Illustr.
  27. Badrian, A., and N. Badrian. The bonobo branch of the family tree: Animal Kingdom 87(4) 1984: 39-45, Illustr.
  28. . The other chimpanzee: Animal Kingdom 83(4) 1980: 9-14, Illustr.
  29. . Social organization of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire: Susman, R.l. [Ed.] The Pygmy Chimpanzee Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. Plenum Press, New York & London. 1984: Vii-Xxviii, 1-435. Chapter Pagination: 325-346, Illustr.
  30. Badrian, N., A. Badrian, and R. Susman L. Preliminary observations on the feeding behavior of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest of central Zaire: Primates 22(2) 1981: 173-181, Illustr.
  31. Badrian, N., and R. Malenky K. Feeding ecology of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire: Susman, R.l. [Ed.] The Pygmy Chimpanzee Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. Plenum Press, New York & London. 1984: Vii-Xxviii, 1-435. Chapter Pagination: 275-299, Illustr.
  32. Bain, O., J. van der Lugt, and L. Kazadi. Stephanofilaria boomkeri n. sp., as a cause of severe skin disease in pigs in Zaire: Parasite 3(4), Decembre 1996: 377-381, Illustr.
  33. Barnes, R. Recent elephant surveys in the central African forests: Asian Elephant Specialist Group. Iucn-Species Survival Commission: Asian Elephant Specialist Group Meeting. Bogor, Indonesia, 20-22 May, 1992. Proceedings. Asian Elephant Conservation Centre, Bangalore. 1992: 1-98. Chapter Pagination: 81-84, Illustr.
  34. Barnes, R., K. Beardsley, F. Michelmore, K. L. Barnes, M. P. T. Alers, and A. Blom. 1997. Estimating Forest Elephant Numbers With Dung Counts and a Geographic Information System. Journal of Wildlife Management 61, no. 4: 1384-93.
    Abstract: Dung counts are the most practical means of estimating numbers and distribution of forest-dwelling elephants. In the forests of Gabon, which have a sparse human population, the density of elephant dung piles increased with distance from roads. Human influences (roads and density of human habitation) accounted for half the variation in dung-pile density. Ninety-five percent of the dung piles were estimated to occur in the low human density stratum that covers two-thirds of Gabon. We present a new method of estimating the dung-pile population using the gradient of dung density in relation to roads. Estimates of the gradient were combined with estimates from a geographic information system (GIS) of the area of forest in bands at different distances (e.g., 0-5, 5-10 km) from roads. This process gave an estimate of the dung-pile population for the whole forest zone; the standard error and confidence limits were found by bootstrapping. We argue that estimates of forest elephant abundance in central Africa will be both more accurate and more precise if one accounts for the gradient. Simulation showed that the optimum sample for Gabon is 40 transects, each 5 km in length.
  35. Basabose, Kanyunyi, and Juichi Yamagiwa. Predation on mammals by chimpanzees in the montane forest of Kahuzi, Zaire: Primates 38(1), January, 1997: 45-55, Illustr.
  36. Beaucournu, J. C. Revision du sous-genre Idioctenophthalmus Hopkins et Rothschild 1966 et description de deux nouveaux taxa (Siphonaptera, Histrichopsyllidae): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 95(3) 1981: 667-686, Illustr.
  37. Beaucournu, J. C, and A. Fain. Allopsylla hetera gen. n., sp. n. d'Afrique centrale (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 96(3) 1982: 559-569, Illustr.
  38. Beaucournu, J. C, and U. Rahm. Contribution a l'etude des siphonapteres de rongeurs et d'insectivores dans la region occidentale du lac Kivu (Zaire): Acta Tropica 35(4) 1978: 357-372, Illustr.
  39. Béchet, J. M. 1929. Etudes d'économie coloniale sur la grande faune et sur l'éléphant du Congo belge. Diekirch: É. Schumacher.
  40. Benoit, P. L G. Contribution a la connaissance des Gasteruptiidae africains (Hymenoptera): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 98(4) 1984: 709-718, Illustr.
  41. Bequaert, Joseph C. 1916. Parasitic muscid larvae collected from the African elephant and the white rhinoceros by the Congo Expedition.Herbert Lang, and James Paul Chapin. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History/ Scientific Results of the American Museum of Natural History Congo Expedition, v. 35, art. 21. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
  42. Bergmans, W. Taxonomy and zoogeography of the fruit bats of the People's Republic of Congo, with notes on their reproductive biology (Mammalia, Megachiroptera): Bijdragen Tot De Dierkunde 48(2) 1979: 161-186, Illustr.
  43. Bermejo, M., and G. Illera. 1999. Tool-Set for Termite-Fishing and Honey Extraction by Wild Chimpanzees in the Lossi Forest, Congo. Primates 40, no. 4: 619-27.
    Abstract: The use of perforating sticks and flexible stalks in combination for termite fishing and a complex tool-set of three components used sequentially (stout chisel, bodkin, and dip-stick) to penetrate melipone and ground-dwelling bee hives by Pan troglocytes troglodytes are documented or inferred from circumstantial evidence. Functionally, termite extraction tools were similar to other locations in west and central Africa. but the plants and the number of raw material species used were different. Tools varied in the degree of modification (fraying ends). Chimpanzees in the Lossi forest seem to be able to use the tools not in a stereotyped fashion, but in a flexible, insightful way. The extraction of Melipone honey using large pieces of wood as pounding tools has rarely been recorded elsewhere. The most impressive technological solution to the honey-getting problem by wild chimpanzees was shown by this study. This is the only known use of a tool-set of three components in sequence to extract honey by wild chimpanzees.
  44. Bermejo, M., G. Illera, and Jordi Sabater Pi. Animals and mushrooms consumed by bonobos (Pan paniscus): new records from Lilungu (Ikela), Zaire: International Journal of Primatology 15(6), December 1994: 879-898, Illustr.
  45. Bermejo, M., and A. Omedes. 1999. Preliminary Vocal Repertoire and Vocal Communication of Wild Bonobos (Pan Paniscus) at Lilungu (Democratic Republic of Congo). Folia Primatologica 70, no. 6: 328-57.
    Abstract: Vocal communication in bonobos, Pan paniscus, has been studied mainly in captive groups. The few studies carried out in the wild are on only specific aspects of their behaviour. The aim of this study is to give a preliminary description of the vocal repertoire and a qualitative account of the contextual use of the vocalizations described. Observations were carried out on th ree wild communities, with a total of 68 individuals, for 685 h. No artificial feeding was used at any stage of the study. The vocal repertoire is composed of 15 vocal units and 19 sequences, There is great variability both in the sequences and in the vocal units, and the categories are not always completely discrete. The repertoire is compared to that of captive bonobos described by De Waal, Most sequences are used in various contexts, and for each behaviour there is a complete array of sequences and their variation. The behaviour patterns observed and the sequences uttered by the animals in each context are discussed, Copyright (C) 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  46. Bernor, R. L, and W. Sanders J. Fossil Equidae from Plio-Pleistocene strata of the Upper Semliki, Zaire: Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir No. 1 1990: 189-196, Illustr.
  47. Bingham, Harold Clyde, Yale University, and Carnegie Institution of Washington. 1932. Gorillas in a native habitat. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, no. 426. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington.
  48. Blake, S., and J. Fay. 1997. Seed Production by Gilbertiodendron Dewevrei in the Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Congo, and Its Implications for Large Mammals. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 885-91.
  49. Blake, S., E. Rogers, J. Fay, M. Ngangoue, and G. Ebeke. Swamp gorillas in northern Congo: African Journal of Ecology 33(3), September 1995: 285-290, Illustr.
  50. Blancou, Lucien. 1932. Contribution à l'étude de la faune sauvage de l'Oubangi-Chari; mammifères des Bassins de la Ouaka et de la Kandjia (circonscription de la Ouaka).[n.p., 1932].
  51. Bodmer, R. E., and K. R. Gubista. A note on the social structure of free-ranging okapi: Acta Zoologica Et Pathologica Antverpiensia No. 80 1988: 11-17, Illustr.
  52. Bodmer, R. E., and G. B. Rabb. Okapia johnstoni: Mammalian Species No. 422 1992: 1-8, Illustr.
  53. Boesch, Christophe, and Hedwige Boesch. Diversity of tool use and tool-making in wild chimpanzees: Berthelet, A. & Chavaillon, J. [Eds]. The Use of Tools by Human and Nonhuman Primates. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1993: I-Xvii, 1-424. Chapter Pagination: 158-174, Illustr.
  54. Bohme, W., and M. Eisentraut. Zur weiteren Dokumentation des Zwergelefanten (Loxodonta pumilio Noack, 1906): Zeitschrift Des Koelner Zoo 33(4) 1990: 153-158, Illustr.
  55. Bordat, Patrice, Y. Cambefort, and P. Bruneau de Mire. Coleopteres coprophages associes au gorille de montagne dans la chaine des Volcans Virunga (Zaire oriental): Bulletin De La Societe Entomologique De France 96(1) 1991: 77-85, Illustr.
  56. Bourlière, François. 1960. Introduction à l'écologie des ongulés du Parc national Albert. Exploration Du Parc National Albert, fasc. 1. Bruxelles: Institut des parcs nationaux du Congo belge.
  57. Bourzat, D., and J. P. Gouteux. Donnees preliminaires sur le contact glossines-petits ruminants dans le massif forestier du Mayombe, Congo: Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 43(2) 1990[1991]: 199-206, Illustr.
  58. Bowen-Jones, E., and S. Pendry. 1999. The Threat to Primates and Other Mammals From the Bushmeat Trade in Africa, and How This Threat Could Be Diminished. Oryx 33, no. 3: 233-46.
    Abstract: The threat that the bushmeat trade presents to primates and other taxa was assessed from the literature, including data from markets, village hunting studies and logging concessions in Central and West Africa. In many cases the numbers of both common and protected species of primate being killed throughout the region are thought to be unsustainable. This is also the case for other taxa involved in the bushmeat trade, which crosses geographic, cultural and economic boundaries. A suite of measures must be considered to mitigate the effects of this trade, and these measures will have to recognize the local, regional and national socio-economic importance of the trade if they are to result in long-term conservation success.
  59. Brabant, Hyacinthe. 1965. Excavations at Sanga, 1957 contribution odontologique à l'étude des ossements trouvés dans la necropole protohistorique de Sanga, Republique du Congo. Annalen. Reeks in 8o. Wetenschappen Van De Mens: Annalen, no. 54. Tervuren, Belgique: Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  60. Bradley, Mary Hastings. 1922. On the gorilla trail. New York, London: D. Appleton and company.
  61. Braga, J. Study of two osseous discrete traits in the occipitocervical region of lowland gorillas: Folia Primatologica 64(1-2), August 1995: 37-43, Illustr.
  62. Brahmachary, R. L. A note on Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. a food plant of the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei (Matschie)): Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association 62(3) 1985: 20-21.
  63. . On the germination of seeds in the dung balls of the African elephant in the Virunga National Park: Terre Et La Vie 34(1) 1980: 139-142, Illustr.
  64. Brahmachary, R L. Seed dispersal through the elephant: Daniel, J.c. & Datye, Hemant S. [Eds]. A Week With Elephants: Proceedings of the International Seminar on the Conservation of Asian Elephant, (June 1993). Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York Etc. 1995: I-Vii, 1-535, Viii-Xi. Chapter Pagination: 389-393.
  65. Breuil, Henri, and G Mortelmans. 1952. Les figures incisées et ponctuées de la grotte de Kiantapo (Katanga). Annales Du Musée Royal Du Congo Belge : Série in 8 : Sciences De L'Homme : Préhistoire ; V. 1. Tervuren Belgique: Musée Royal du Congo Belge.
  66. Bright, Michael. 1989. Mountain gorilla. Project Wildlife. New York: Gloucester Press.
    Abstract: Describes the physical characteristics, habits, and natural environment of the largest living primate, the gentle and shy mountain gorilla, now threatened with extinction because of the systematic destruction of its habitat
  67. Brooks, Daniel M, Richard E Bodmer, Sharon Matola, and IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group. 1997. Tapirs status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
  68. Bula, M., and L. Mafwala. Le diagnostic de la rage animale a Lubumbashi, Zaire: Revue Scientifique Et Technique Office International Des Epizooties 7(2) 1988: 387-394, Illustr.
  69. Burger, J., and M. Gochfeld. Vigilance in African mammals: differences among mothers, other females, and males: Behaviour 131(3-4), December 1994: 153-169, Illustr.
  70. Burt, F. J., R. Swanepoel, and L. Braack. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibody to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates: Epidemiology and Infection 111(3), December 1993: 547-557, Illustr.
  71. Butynski, Thomas M. Mt Tshiaberimu gorilla census: Eanhs Bulletin 26(1), March 1996: 2-4, Illustr.
  72. Cabaret, J., C. Bayssade-Dufour, G. Tami, and J. L. Albaret. 1999. Identification of African Paragonimidae by Multivariate Analysis of the Eggs. Acta Tropica 72, no. 1: 79-89.
    Abstract: A study of metacercariae and adult Paragonimidae revealed the existence in West-Africa of four species, of which two are largely recorded in literature (Paragonimus africanus and Paragonimus uterobilateralis), one was suspected (Paragonimus, westermani-like) and one remained unrecorded in Africa (Euparagonimus sp). Among the two last ones, P. westermani-like was probably confused with P. africanus, and Euparagonimus sp. with P. uterobilateralis. P. westermani-like adult worms differed from P. africanus by the morphology of ovary, testes and the size of the metraterm eggs. Euparagonimus could be identified by a short excretory bladder in metacercariae. The discriminant functions established on eggs measurements (average, maximum and minimum length, average, maximum and minimum width) were able to separate the isolates into four groups. The largest eggs (97 x 59 mu m) belonged to P. westermani-like, the medium sized eggs were ascribed to P. africanus (91 x 49 mu m) and to Euparagonimus sp. (84 x 50 mu m), and the smaller eggs (69 x 42 mu m) were identified as P. uterobilateralis. Three Paragonimidae were identified in Cameroon: P. westermani-like, P. africanus and Euparagonimus sp. Additionally, P. uterobilateralis, P. westermani-like, and Euparagonimus sp. were found in the Congo, Gabon, and the Ivory Coast, respectively. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  73. Campbell, William Durant. 1938. The William D. Campbell African Expedition. William D. Campbell African Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History (1936-1937). 2 videocassettes (92 min.) : si., b&w ; 3/4 in. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
    Abstract: Filmed during the AMNH William D. Campbell African Expedition, 1938. The objective of the AMNH William D. Campbell African Expedition was to collect specimens for the okapi and Nile groups in the AMNH Akeley Hall of African Mammals. The expedition party traveled through Kenya, Uganda, Zaire, and the Sudan, under the leadership of William Durant Campbell, field associate of the AMNH Department of Mammalogy. The staff included Major W. V. D. Dickenson, a white hunter for MGM's movie Trader Horn who also did stunt work for that 1929 film, and Gardell D. Christensen, AMNH naturalist and taxidermist. Christensen was replaced by Robert W. Kane, AMNH artist, for the Nile leg of the expedition. The expedition begins at Campbell's ranch in Nyeri, Kenya, where supplies are loaded on the expedition vehicles. The film follows the route of the expedition over the Tana River Bridge, Kenya; over the Nzoia Bridge on the Uganda border; past the Ripon Falls in Uganda (now submerged by Owen Falls Dam); over the Jinja Bridge in Uganda, which spans the Nile; and past the Kivu Volcano (Zaire), seen in the distance. En route the staff pays homage to Carl Ethan Akeley at his grave site. Akeley was an AMNH taxidermist, inventor, explorer, and naturalist who died in the Belgian Congo (now Zaire) in 1926. This leg of the expedition was especially comfortable: the campsites were elegant and well-appointed, and were supplemented by occasional sojourns to such places as the Ibis Hotel and Mr. Putnam's Rest House, where clothing was not only washed, but ironed. The expedition reaches the Ituri Forest, Belgian Congo (now Zaire), home of the okapi, a large, shy mammal related to the giraffe. Magnificent pea trees festooned with lianas are featured. Bambuti help the hired expedition natives to clear the campsite in the forest. In a Bambuti camp, natives adorned with bits of leaves and loin-cloths of bark, some with body paint, dance around a man lying on his back with his eyes closed. The next sequence is of an okapi pen. A photographic study of a dead okapi follows; its skeleton is cleaned and its skin prepared. The second part of this expedition film covers collecting for the Nile group, and at Juba the Sudan trip personnel is introduced. As the expedition moves along, their trucks continually get stuck in riverbeds; the Dinkas are ever helpful in pulling them out. More than twenty of them remove a hippopotamus bagged by Campbell from the water and are rewarded with its meat after the necessary parts are taken by the expedition staff. The last section of this film is original kodachrome and black-and-white. Some footage is repeated in color: a close-up study of a hippopotamus, and the fording of rivers. Dinka women are seen. In both color and black-and-white, fishing techniques are shown; the Dinka stir up the river bottom, and fish are then caught in baskets and nets. Two kites are studied as they descend to catch their meal. Photographic studies are made of the following dead animals: a crocodile, an African saddlebill stork, a Nile lechwe, a sitatunga, and a roan antelope.
  74. Carpaneto, G. M. Occurrence of black colobus Colobus satanas in northwestern Congo: African Primates 1(2), December 1995: 42-44, Illustr.
  75. Carpaneto, G. M, and F. Germi P. Diversity of mammals and traditional hunting in central African rain forests: Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 40(1-4) 1992: 335-354, Illustr.
  76. . The mammals in the zoological culture of the Mbuti pygmies in the north-eastern Zaire: Hystrix 1 1989: 1-83, Illustr.
  77. Casimir, M. J. An analysis of gorilla nesting sites of the Mt. Kahuzi region (Zaire): Folia Primatologica 32(4) 1979: 290-308, Illustr.
  78. Cave, A., and T. Jones. Canine tooth fracture in two Congolese gorillas: Journal of Zoology (London) 227(4) 1992: 685-690, Illustr.
  79. Chapman, C. A, F. White J, and R. Wrangham W. Party size in chimpanzees and bonobos: Wrangham, R.w., Mcgrew, W.c., De Waal, F.b.m. & Heltne, P.g. [Eds]. Chimpanzee Cultures. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England. 1994: I-Xxiii, 1-424. Chapter Pagination: 41-57, Illustr.
  80. Chapman, Joseph A, John E. C Flux, and IUCN/SSC Lagomorph Specialist Group. 1990. Rabbits, hares and pikas status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
  81. Chartier, C. Les dominantes du parasitisme helminthique chez les bovins en Ituri (Haut-Zaire). 1. La faune helminthique: Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 43(1) 1990: 75-84, Illustr.
  82. Colyn, M. Coat colour polymorphism of red colobus monkeys (Colobus badius, Primates, Colobinae) in eastern Zaire: taxonomic and biogeographic implications: Journal of African Zoology 107(4), 15 September 1993: 301-320, Illustr.
  83. . Distribution of guenons in the Zaire-Lualaba-Lomami River system: Gautier-Hion, A., Bourliere, F., Gautier, J.-P. & Kingdon, J. A Primate Radiation. Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York Etc. 1988: I-Viii, 1-567. Chapter Pagination: 105-124, Illustr.
  84. . Donnees ponderales sur les primates Cercopithecidae d'Afrique Centrale (Bassin du Zaire/Congo): Mammalia 58(3) 1994: 483-487, Illustr.
  85. . 1991. L'importance zoogéographique du bassin du fleuve Zaïre pour la spéciation le cas des primates simiens. Annalen. Zoologische Wetenschappen =: Annales. Sciences Zoologiques: Annalen, nr. 264. Tervuren, Belgique: Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale.
  86. . Les mammiferes de foret ombrophile entre les rivieres Tshopo et Maiko (region du Haut-Zaire): Bulletin De L'institut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles De Belgique Biologie 56 1986: 21-26, Illustr.
  87. . 1994. Ponderal data on the Cercopithecidae primates of Central Africa (Zairian basin/Congo. Mammalia.
    Abstract: Although many studies take into account the variable mchlt weight mchgt of wild primates, it appears from the literature that few body weight data have been collected for Cercopithecidae. This study provides body weight data for 871 Cercopithecidae weighted on game markets in the Kisangani (Zaire) and N'Gotto (Central African Republic) regions in the Zaire/Congo Basin. For the best represented species, the results allow to identify a "standard" mean weight for a given population and, among well represented polytypic species, a first comparison at subspecies level
  88. . Les Primates des forets ombrophiles de la cuvette du Zaire: interpretations zoogeographiques des modeles de distribution: Revue De Zoologie Africaine 101(2) 1987: 183-196, Illustr.
  89. . 1991. Zoogeographical importance of the Zaire River basin for speciation: L'importance zoogeographique du bassin du fleuve Zaire pour la speciation: le cas des primates simiens. Annalen. Zoologische Wetenschappen =: Annales. Sciences Zoologiques ; V. 264: Annalen. Zoologische Wetenschappen ; V. 264. Tervuren, Belgie: Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika.
  90. Colyn, M., M. Dethier, P. Ngegueu, O. Perpete, and H. Van Rompaey. First observations of Crossarchus platycephalus (Goldman, 1984) in the Zaire/Congo system (Dja River, southeastern Cameroon): Small Carnivore Conservation 12, April 1995: 10-11, Illustr.
  91. Colyn, M., and A. Dudu M. Releve systematique des rongeurs (Muridae) des iles forestieres du fleuve Zaire entre Kisangani et Kinshasa: Revue De Zoologie Africaine 99(4) 1986: 353-357, Illustr.
  92. Colyn, M., A. M. Dudu, and M. Mankoto ma Mbaelele. Donnees sur l'exploitation du 'petit et moyen gibier' des forets ombrophiles du Zaire: International Foundation for the Conservation of Game. Wildlife Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Sustainable Economic Benefits and Contribution Towards Rural Development. I.g.f. (Fondation Internationale Pour La Sauvegarde Du Gibier), Paris. [Undated]: I-Xviii, 1-727. Chapter Pagination: 109-145, Illustr.
  93. Colyn, M., Annie Gautier Hion, and W. Verheyen. A re-appraisal of palaeoenvironmental history in Central Africa: evidence for a major fluvial refuge in the Zaire Basin: Journal of Biogeography 18(4) 1991: 403-407, Illustr.
  94. Colyn, M., and H. Gevaerts. Osbornictis piscivora Allen, 1919, deux nouvelles stations de recolte dans la sous-region de la Tshopo (Haut-Zaire): Bulletin De L'institut Royal Des Sciences Naturelles De Belgique Biologie 56 1986: 9-11, Illustr.
  95. Colyn, M., and U. Rahm. Cercopithecus hamlyni kahuziensis (Primates, Cercopithecidae): une nouvelle sous-espece de la foret de bambous du Parc National 'Kahuzi-Biega' (Zaire): Folia Primatologica 49(3-4) 1987: 203-208, Illustr.
  96. Colyn, M., and H. Van Rompaey. A biogeographic study of cusimanses (Crossarchus) (Carnivora, Herpestidae) in the Zaire Basin: Journal of Biogeography 21(5), September 1994: 479-489, Illustr.
  97. Colyn, M., and H. van Rompaey. Crossarchus ansorgei nigricolor, a new subspecies of Ansorge's cusimanse (Carnivora, Viverridae) from south-central Zaire: Zeitschrift Fuer Saeugetierkunde 55(2) 1990: 94-98, Illustr.
  98. Colyn, M., and W. Verheyen N. Colobus rufomitratus parmentieri, une nouvelle sous-espece du Zaire (Primates, Cercopithecidae): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 101(1) 1987: 125-132, Illustr.
  99. . Considerations sur la validite de l'holotype de Cercopithecus mitis maesi Lonnberg, 1919 (Primates, Cercopithecidae) et description d'une nouvelle sous-espece: Cercopithecus mitis heymansi: Mammalia 51(2) 1987: 271-281, Illustr.
  100. . Distributions geographiques de Cercopithecus wolfi elegans et de C. wolfi wolfi dans le bassin du fleuve Zaire: Revue De Zoologie Africaine 102(1) 1988: 71-78, Illustr.
  101. Cooke, H. B S. Suid remains from the Upper Semliki area, Zaire: Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir No. 1 1990: 197-201, Illustr.
  102. Cornet, J. P., Y. S. Ba, K. Ba, G. Chauvancy, and H. G. Zeller. 1997. Contribution to the Study of the Tick Vectors (Acarina : Ixodina) of the Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus (Cchf) in Senegal .3. Rhipicephalus Guilhoni Morel Et Vassilliades, Variations in Size as a Function of Parasitic Load. Epidemiological Consequences. Acarologia 38, no. 1: 39-41.
    Abstract: The ixodid fauna of rodent burrows in the Bandia area was studied. From May 1987 to April 1988, 1794 ticks were collected, mostly immature and mature A. sonrai (98,2%). This tick species is present all year round, without significant seasonal variations. The development cycle of 110 days was determined in the laboratory. Three CCHF virus isolates were obtained from this tick species. However, CCHF transmission experiments strongly suggest that A. sonrai is not a vector of CCHF virus.
    The higher the number of ticks located on one host, the smaller will be the size of the adults collected. The number of eggs laid will be reduced, with a consequential affect on the spreading of the virus. On a rabbit, 5 larvae were placed at one site and 15 at another: the average length of the adults collected was respectively, 3.03 mm and 2.97 mm. On another rabbit the length of the adults obtained from 5 larvae at one site was 2.80 mm, and 2.47 mm for 200 larvae from the other.
  103. Cornet, J. P., H. G. Zeller, K. Ba, J. Camicas, J. Gonzalez, and M. Wilson. Contribution a l'etude des tiques (Acarina: Ixodina) vectrices du virus de la fievre hemorragique Crimee-Congo (CCHF) au Senegal. 1. Analyse du parasitisme chez les petits rongeurs: Acarologia (Paris) 36(4), Decembre 1995: 287-292, Illustr.
  104. Cousins, D. The diminutive Pan: Izn (International Zoo News) 25(2) 1978: 5-11.
  105. . Notes on bacterial and fungal infections in the Gorilla: Izn (International Zoo News) 25(3) 1978: 19-24.
  106. Cumming, D. H. M, Rohan Du Toit, IUCN/SSC African Elephant and Rhino Specialist Group, and S. N. Stuart. 1990. African elephants and rhinos : status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Action Plans for the Conservation of Biological Diversity, [10]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
  107. Cumming, D. H. M, Peter Jackson, IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group, and IUCN/SSC African Rhino Specialist Group. 1984. The Status and conservation of Africa's elephants and rhinos proceedings of the joint meeting of IUCN/SSC African Elephant and African Rhino Specialist Groups at Hwange Safari Lodge, Zimbabwe, 30 July-7 August, 1981. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Publications Services.
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  110. de Boer, L. E M. Okapi.: Artis (Amsterdam) 29(5) 1984: 144-150, Illustr.
  111. de Meulenaer, T., and M. Meredith. The ivory trade in Zaire: Ivory Trade Review Group. The Ivory Trade and the Future of the African Elephant. Volume 2. Technical Reports. Ivory Trade Review Group, International Development Centre, 21 St.giles, Oxford, Ox1 3la. 1989: 700pp[Unpaginated]. Chapter Pagination: 21pp., Illustr.
  112. Decoster, S., and F. Gilleau. Le chimpanze nain du Zaire: une synthese bibliographique de son ecologie et de son ethologie: Cahiers D'ethologie Appliquee 7(4) 1987: 367-390, Illustr.
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  115. Deusing, Murl, and American Museum of Natural History. 1948. An African Safari. Central African Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History (1947-1948). 2 videocassettes (80 min.) : si., col. ; 3/4 in. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
    Abstract: Filmed during the AMNH Central African Expedition, 1948. Starting at Cape Town and going round the southern tip of Africa up to Mombasa, Kenya, the AMNH Central African Expedition, led by AMNH director of preparation and installation James Lippitt Clark, then traveled through Nairobi, the Mountains of the Moon in the Ruwenzori Range in Uganda and Zaire, Ripon Falls (Uganda), Bagasson (Congo) and Stanleyville (now Kisangani in Zaire), all north of Lake Victoria, then to Uganda, the Belgian Congo (now Zaire) and Congo. The film opens with a map showing the route. Expedition activities follow, including fording rivers, setting up camp, cooking, baking bread, and ironing, all photographed at Campsite #4 in Narok, Kenya. The Masai people are shown tending their cattle, which includes milking and bleeding. The Masai dung-covered dwellings are seen, as are the moran, or warrior strata of the Masai, with their shields and swords. Pygmies cook, smoke, sing, and dance. The expedition filmed many different species of animals: mammals, including giraffes (courtship behavior), lions, zebras, buffaloes, elephants, leopards, cattle, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, warthogs, jackals, waterbucks, impalas, kobs, topis, bushbucks, Thomson's gazelles, Grant's gazelles and wildebeests; birds, including egrets, crowned cranes (courtship behavior), storks, vultures, hammerkops, hawks, bustards and pelicans; insects, including ants and various ant nests, termites, termite queens and termite nests, butterflies, and grasshoppers; reptiles, including a python, and a turtle; and invertebrates in the form of millipedes and a snail.
  116. Dieterlen, F. Beziehungen zwischen Umweltfaktoren und Fortpflanzungsperiodik myomorpher Nager eines afrikanischen Tieflandregenwaldes (Ost-Zaire): Zeitschrift Fuer Saeugetierkunde 50(3) 1985: 152-166, Illustr.
  117. . Daten zur Fortpflanzung und Populationsstruktur der myomorphen Nager eine afrikanischen Tieflandregenwaldes (Ost-Zaire): Zeitschrift Fuer Saeugetierkunde 50(2) 1985: 68-88, Illustr.
  118. . Seasonal reproduction and population dynamics in rodents of an African lowland rain forest: Cimbebasia Series a 8(1) 1986: 1-7, Illustr.
  119. . Zweiter Fund von Dendromus kahuziensis (Dendromurinae; Cricetidae; Rodentia) und weitere Dendromus-Fange im Kivu-Hochland oberhalb 2000m: Stuttgarter Beitraege Zur Naturkunde Serie a (Biologie) No. 286 1976: 1-5, Illustr.
  120. Dieterlen, F., and Henri Heim de Balsac. Zur Okologie und Taxonomie der Spitzmause: Saeugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 27(4) 1979: 241-287, Illustr.
  121. Dieterlen, F., and B. Statzner. The African rodent Colomys goslingi Thomas and Wroughton, 1907 (Rodentia: Muridae) - a predator in limnetic ecosystems: Zeitschrift Fuer Saeugetierkunde 46(6) 1981: 369-383, Illustr.
  122. Dieterlen, F., and E. van der Straeten. New specimens of Malacomys verschureni from eastern Zaire (Mammalia, Muridae): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 98(4) 1984: 861-868, Illustr.
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  127. Dossenbach, H. D. Die milden Wilden: Kosmos (Stuttgart) 81(10) 1985: 38-47, Illustr.
  128. Dowsett, B. The strange case of two of Congo's last lions: Cat News 22, Spring 1995: 9-10.
  129. Dowsett Lemaire, Francoise, and R. Dowsett. Buffalos of the forest-savanna mosaic of Odzala National Park, Congo.: Tauraco Research Report 6, 1997: 61-68, Illustr.
  130. . Enquete faunistique dans la foret du Mayombe (Dimonika): itineraire, resultats et recommandations: Tauraco Research Report No. 2 1989: 1-4, Illustr.
  131. . Enquete faunistique dans la foret du Mayombe (Dimonika): itineraire, resultats et recommendations: Cahiers D'ethologie Appliquee 9(3) 1989: 411-415, Illustr.
  132. . 1989. Enquête faunistique dans la forêt du Mayombe, et check-liste des oiseaux et des mammifères du Congo. Tauraco Research Report, 2. Liège, Belgium: Tauraco Press.
    Abstract: Table of Contents: Enquête faunistique dans la forêt du Mayombe (Dimonika) : itinéraire, résultats et recommandations / Françoise Dowsett-Lemaire et R.J. Dowsett
    Liste commentée des oiseaux de la forêt du Mayombe (Congo) / Françoise Dowsett-Lemaire et R.J. Dowsett
    Avifaune du Congo : additions et corrections / R.J. Dowsett & Françoise Dowsett-Lemaire
    Liste préliminaire des grands mammifères du Congo / R.J. Dowsett et Françoise Dowsett-Lemaire
    Liste préliminaire des oiseaux du Congo / R.J. Dowsett et Françoise Dowsett-Lemaire
    Répertoire de certaines localités d'importance zoologique au Congo / R.J. Dowsett.
  133. . Observations complementaires sur quelques grands mammiferes dans le bassin du Kouilou au Congo: Tauraco Research Report No. 4 1991: 291-296, Illustr.
  134. Dowsett, R. Gazetteer of zoological localities in Congo: Tauraco Research Report No. 4 1991: 335-340.
  135. . Les lois gerant la conservation de la nature au Congo: critiques et recommandations: Tauraco Research Report No. 4 1991: 323-334, Illustr.
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  137. . The red-flanked duiker Cephalophus rufilatus does not occur in Congo and Gabon: Mammalia 57(3) 1993: 445-446.
  138. Dowsett, R., and Francoise Dowsett Lemaire. Liste preliminaire des grands mammiferes du Congo: Tauraco Research Report No. 2 1989: 20-28.
  139. . Preliminary notes on the large mammals of Odzala National Park, Congo.: Tauraco Research Report 6, 1997: 49-59, Illustr.
  140. Dowsett, R., and L. Granjon. Liste preliminaire des mammiferes du Congo: Tauraco Research Report No. 4 1991: 297-310.
  141. Dowsett, R., and L Granjon. Preliminary notes on the small mammals of the Parc National d'Odzala, Congo: Tauraco Research Report 6, 1997: 69-76, Illustr.
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  143. Dronen, Norman O., Steven R. Simcik, Jerroid J. Scharninghausen, and Richard M. Pitts. 1999. Thysanotaenia Congolensis N. Sp. (Cestoda : Anoplocephalidae) in the Lesser Savanna Cane Rat, Thryonomys Gregorianus From Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa. Journal of Parasitology 85, no. 1: 90-92.
    Abstract: Ten (100%) lesser savanna cane rats, Thryonomys gregorianus, collected from the Lake Kivv area of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa were found to be infected with an undescribed anoplocephalid tapeworm, Thysanotaenia congolensis n. sp. Like other species of Thysanotaenia, T. congolensis n. sp. has the ovary and vitellarium centrally located, and the egg capsules and testes are intervascular. The new species differs from the 2 existing species, Thysanotaenia lemuris in lemurs and Thysanotaenia cubensis in humans, in being smaller (34-50 mm long) and in having a smaller scolex (260-410 mu m in diameter), a shorter cirrus sac (115 mu m long), and smaller eggs (40 mu m in diameter). Anastomoses of the excretory system and formation of egg capsules in the new species are also described.
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  146. Dudu, Akaibe, Ron Verhagen, H. Gevaerts, and Walter Verheyen. Population structure and reproductive cycle of Praomys jacksoni (Dewinton, 1897) and first data on the reproduction of P. misonnei Van der Straeten & Dieterlen, 1987 and P. mutoni Van der Straeten & Dudu 1990 (Muridae) from Masako Forest, (Kisangani, Zaire): Belgian Journal of Zoology 127(Supplement), October, 1997: 67-70, Illustr.
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  156. . What is play for the bonobo?: Primate Research 10(3), December 1994: 269-279, Illustr.
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  160. Fain, A., and B. Hart J. Acariens parasites ou nidicoles de rongeurs et d'insectivores de la region du Kivu, au Zaire. 2. Genre Androlaelaps Berlese, 1903 (Mesostigmata, Laelapidae): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 102(4) 1988: 439-453, Illustr.
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  178. Fruth, B., and G. Hohmann. Comparative analyses of nest building behavior in bonobos and chimpanzees: Wrangham, R.w., Mcgrew, W.c., De Waal, F.b.m. & Heltne, P.g. [Eds]. Chimpanzee Cultures. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England. 1994: I-Xxiii, 1-424. Chapter Pagination: 109-128, Illustr.
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  181. Furuichi, Takeshi. 1997. Agonistic Interactions and Matrifocal Dominance Rank of Wild Bonobos (Pan Paniscus) at Wamba. International Journal of Primatology 18, no. 6: 855-75.
    Abstract: I studied dominance relations in a wild group of bonobos at Wamba, Democratic Republic of Congo. Although agonistic interactions between males occurred frequently, most of them consisted only of display, and physical attacks were infrequent. Dominance rank order seemed to exist among males, but its linearity is unclear. Dominant males rarely disturbed copulatory behavior by subordinate males. However, high-ranking males usually stayed in the central position of the mixed party and, so, would have more chance of access to estrous females. Among females, older individuals tended to be dominant over younger individuals. However, agonistic interactions between females occurred rather infrequently, and most consisted of displacement without any overt aggressive behavior. Dominance between males and females is unclear, but females tended to have priority of access to food. The close social status between males and females may be related to the prolonged estrus of females and their close aggregation during ranging. Existence of a male's mother in the group and her dominance status among females seemed to influence his dominance rank among males. Young adult males whose mothers were alive in the group tended to have high status. In some cases, change in dominance between high-ranking males was preceded by a corresponding change in dominance between their mothers. As the dominance status of females is similar to that of males, mothers may be able to support their sons to achieve high status, stay in the center of the mixed party, and so have greater access to females, which may maximize the number of descendants of the mothers.
  182. . Agonistic interactions and matrifocal dominance rank of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba: International Journal of Primatology 18(6), December, 1997: 855-875, Illustr.
  183. . The prolonged estrus of females and factors influencing mating in a wild group of bonobos (Pan paniscus) in Wamba, Zaire: Itoigawa, N., Sugiyama, Y., Sackett, G.p. & Thompson, R.k.r. [Eds]. Topics in Primatology. Volume 2. Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. 1992: I-Ix, 1-412. Chapter Pagination: 179-190, Illustr.
  184. . Sexual swelling, receptivity, and grouping of wild pygmy chimpanzees females at Wamba, Zaire: Primates 28(3) 1987: 309-318, Illustr.
  185. . Social interactions and the life history of female Pan paniscus in Wamba, Zaire: International Journal of Primatology 10(3) 1989: 173-197, Illustr.
  186. Furuichi, Takeshi, Gen'ichi Idani, Hiroshi Ihobe, Suehisa Kuroda, Koji Kitamura, Akio Mori, Tomoo Enomoto, Naobi Okayasu, Chie Hashimoto, and Takayoshi Kano. 1998. Population Dynamics of Wild Bonobos (Pan Paniscus) at Wamba. International Journal of Primatology 19, no. 6: 1029-43.
    Abstract: We analyzed population dynamics and birth seasonality of wild bonobos at Wamba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, based on 20 years of observations (1976-1996). Wamba Bonobo infant mortality is much lower than that reported for chimpanzees. This seemes to be related to several socioecological characteristics of bonobos: the use of abundant fruit and herbaceous foods, larger food patch site, female feeding priority and the absence of infanticide. The mean interval between live births of 4.8 years is shorter than those reported for chimpanzees, and some females simultaneously carried and nursed two successive offspring Mother-offspring conflicts, such as refusal of suckling attempts and interference with mothers' copulation which are common in chimpanzees, are rare in Wamba bonobos. A birth peak seems to occur during the light rainy season fr om March to May, just after the season with the least rainfall. This timing of births is similar to those reported for chimpanzee populations, and might benefit both mother and offspring by maximizing the amount of time before the next dry season.
  187. Furuichi, Takeshi, and Hiroshi Ihobe. Variation in male relationships in bonobos and chimpanzees: Behaviour 130(3-4), September 1994: 211-228, Illustr.
  188. Galdikas, B. M F, and J. Wood W. Birth spacing patterns in humans and apes: American Journal of Physical Anthropology 83(2) 1990: 185-191, Illustr.
  189. Gashumba, J. K. 1990. Speciation and subspeciation in Nannomonas trypanosomes and their epidemiological significance. Insect Science and Its Application 11 , no. 3: 265-69.
    Abstract: Trypanosoma congolense and T. simiae have been the two recognized species within the subgenus Nannomonas. T. congolense is pathogenic to cattle and the small ruminants but not to pigs, while T. simiae causes disease only in pigs. The two species are difficult to distinguish from each other because both share the same developmental cycle in the tsetse and are broadly similar morphologically. However, their isoenzyme and DNA characteristics are quite different. Even more confusing is the fact that T. congolense itself is composed of a number of "strains", or types; historically the different types of T. congolense were often considered as separate species by different workers. Now isoenzyme and DNA characterization show that T. congolense is composed of at least three different types, which are probably equivalent to subspecies. Furthermore, evidence for another species within the subgenus Nannomonas has come recently from isolates from tsetse midguts in The Gambia. Specific DNA probes have now been produced for the different kinds of Nannomonas. With these, it is now possible to identify the different infection from midgut dissections of wild tsetse. This should now facilitate an elaborate study to determine the distribution and prevalence of the different types across Africa, their association with the different species of tsetse, and the significance of each in the causation of disease in domestic livestock. The information gained will also help clarify the taxonomic status of each type within the subgenus
  190. Gautier-Hion, Annie. 1988. A Primate radiation : evolutionary biology of the African guenons . editors François Bourlière, Jean-Pierre Gautier, and Jonathan Kingdon. Cambridge [England] ; New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Abstract: Table of Contents: Fossil evidence for the evolution of the guenons / Meave Leakey Guenon evolution and forest history / Alan C. Hamilton Habitat and locomotion in Miocene cercopithecoids / Martin Pickford and Brigitte Senut Classification and geographical distribution of guenons: a review / Jean-Marc Lernould The distribution of Cercopithecus monkeys in West African forests / John F. Oates Distribution of guenons in the Zaire-Lualaba-Lomani river system / Marc M. Colyn Genetic evolution in the African guenons / Maryellen Ruvolo Population differentiation in Cercopithecus monkeys / Trudy T. Turner, Jerald E. Maiers and Carol S. Mott Chromosomal evolution of Cercopithecinae / Bernard Dutrillaux, Martine Muleris and Jerome Couturier Quantitative comparisons of the skull and teeth in guenons / Robert D. Martin and Ann M. MacLarnon Comparative morphology of hands and feet in the genus Cercopithecus / Jonathan Kingdon Interspecific affinities among guenons as deduced from vocalizations / Jean-Pierre Gautier What are face patterns and do they contribute to reproductive isolation in guenons? / Jonathan Kingdon Olfactory marking behaviour in guenons and its implications / Jean-Noel Loireau and Annie Gautier-Hion The diet and dietary habits of forest guenons / Annie Gautier-Hion Guenon birth seasons and correlates with rainfall and food / Thomas M. Butynski Mating systems of forest guenons: a preliminary review / Marina Cords Male tenure, multi-male influxes, and reproductive success in redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) / Thomas T. Struhsaker Group fission in redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) in the Kibale Forest, Uganda / Thomas T. Struhsaker and Lysa Leland Cercopithecus aethiops: a review of field studies / Laurence Fedigan and Linda M. Fedigan The natural history of patas monkeys / Janice Chism and Thelma E. Rowell The social system of guenons, compared with baboons, macaques and mangabeys / Thelma E. Rowell Polyspecific associations among forest guenons: ecological, behavioural and evolutionary aspects / Annie Gautier-Hion Hybridization between redtail (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti) and blue (C. mitis stuhlmanni) monkeys in the Kibale Forest, Uganda / Thomas T. Struhsaker, Thomas M. Butynski and Jeremiah S. Lwanga.
  191. Gautier Hion, Annie, J. P. Gautier, and F. Maisels. Seed dispersal versus seed predation: an inter-site comparison of two related African monkeys: Advances in Vegetation Science 15 1993: 237-244, Illustr.
  192. Gautier Hion, Annie, and F. Maisels. Mutualism between a leguminous tree and large African monkeys as pollinators: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34(3), March 1994: 203-210, Illustr.
  193. Gautier, J. P. Quelques caracteristiques ecologiques du sing des marais. Allenopithecus nigroviridis Lang 1923: Revue D'ecologie La Terre Et La Vie 40(3) 1985: 331-342, Illustr.
  194. Gentry, A. W. The Semliki fossil bovids: Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir No. 1 1990: 225-234, Illustr.
  195. Gerloff, U., C. Schlotterer, K. Rassmann, I. Rambold, G. Hohmann, B. Fruth, and D. Tautz. Amplification of hypervariable simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) from excremental DNA of wild living bonobos (Pan paniscus): Molecular Ecology 4(4), August 1995: 515-518, Illustr.
  196. Gevaerts, H. Birth seasons of Cercopithecus, Cercocebus and Colobus in Zaire: Folia Primatologica 59(2), February 1992: 105-113, Illustr.
  197. Gevaerts, H., and A. Upoki. Le cycle de reproduction observe chez les cercopitheques de la foret ombrophile dans la region de Kisangani, pres de l'Equateur: Revue De Zoologie Africaine 101(2) 1987: 284-287, Illustr.
  198. Gibbs, D. Central Africa. 31 January - 30 April 1987. A guide to seeing birds and gorillas: Publisher & Place of Publication Not Given. 1987: 1-34, Illustr.
  199. Glander, K. Alouatta palliata (congo, howling monkey, howler monkey): Janzen, D.h. [Ed.] Costa Rican Natural History. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 1983: I-Xi, 1-816. Chapter Pagination: 448-449, Illustr.
  200. Glatston, A. R, and IUCN/SSC Mustelid, Viverrid & Procyonid Specialist Group. 1994. The red panda, olingos, coatis, raccoons, and their relatives status survey and conservation action plan for procyonids and ailurids. IUCN/SSC Action Plans for the Conservation of Biological Diversity. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
  201. Goldberg, Tony L. 1998. Biogeographic Predictors of Genetic Diversity in Populations of Eastern African Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Schweinfurthi). International Journal of Primatology 19, no. 2: 237-54.
    Abstract: I collected mitochondrial DNA sequences-hypervariable region 1 of the control region-from 281 eastern chimpanzees in 19 geographically defined populations and calculated genetic diversity measures to test the hypothesis that populations inhabiting the reconstructed locations of Pleistocene forest refugia harbor higher genetic diversities than those of other populations. The hypothesis is only weakly supported. Population genetic diversity is not significantly correlated with geographic proximity to refugia, with the area of forest that the populations currently occupy, or with the degree of geographic isolation of the populations. However, the two populations displaying the consistently highest genetic diversities are located in refuge areas: Uganda's Rwenzori Mountains and the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo's Ituri Forest. These results, in combination with previously findings, imply that chimpanzees may have lived both in and out of refugia during periods when tropical forest were restricted to refugia. This interpretation is consistent with the notion of chimpanzees as an extraordinarily vagile species, capable of maintaining gene flow across habitat mosaics of forest, woodland, and savannah.
  202. Goldberg, Tony L, and Maryellen Ruvolo. The geographic apportionment of mitochondrial genetic diversity in east African chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii: Molecular Biology and Evolution 14(9), September, 1997: 976-984, Illustr.
  203. . Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of east African chimpanzees: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 61(3), July, 1997: 301-324, Illustr.
  204. Gonzalez-Kirchner, J. P. 1997. Census of Western Lowland Gorilla Population in Rio Muni Region, Equatorial Guinea. Folia Zoologica 46, no. 1: 15-22.
    Abstract: Gorillas are one of the most vulnerable primates in the world. There are few areas in the African continent where this species survives, and West African coast areas around the Biafra gulf are one of these. A census was made of gorilla populations throughout the Rio Muni region in Equatorial Guinea between July 1989 and December 1990. The aim of the census was to estimate the total numbers of this species in relation with its distribution on Rio Muni region. The method was based on nest counts along strip transects which allowed the calculation of population densities of nesting adult individuals. A total of 385 km of transects was sampled in areas inhabited by gorillas. The overall density calculated for transects in Rio Muni was 0.45 nesting gorilas/km(2). The highest densities were found in the Rio Campo area (0.71 ng/km(2)) of northwestern Rio Muni, and in the Nsork area (0.65 ng/km(2)) of southeastern Rio Muni. The vegetation type where nest groups were predominantly found was heliofilic forest. The average densities of the gorilla population found in Rio Muni were similar to those found in neighbouring Gabon and Congo. The estimated size of the gorilla population in Rio Muni stands between 1000 and 2000 individuals.
  205. Goodall, A. G. On habitat and home range in eastern gorillas in relation to conservation: Chivers, D.j. & Lane-Petter, W. [Eds] Recent Advances in Primatology. Volume Two. Conservation. Academic Press, London, New York & San Francisco 1978: V-Xiii, 3-312. Chapter Pagination: 81-83.
  206. Goodall, A. G. The wandering gorillas: Collins, London, Glasgow Etc. 1979: 1-253, Illustr.
  207. Goodall, J. The chimpanzee: the living link between man and beast: the Third Edinburgh Medal Address: Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. 1992: 1-55, Illustr.
  208. . Through a window: thirty years with the chimpanzees of Gombe: Weidenfield & Nicholson, London. 1990: 1-288, Illustr.
  209. Gouteux, J. P, J. Eouzan P, and F. Noireau. Modification du comportement de Glossina palpalis palpalis lie a l'epizootie de peste porcine de 1982 dans un village congolais: Acta Tropica 44(3) 1987: 333-337, Illustr.
  210. Gouteux, J. P., E. Nkouda, N. Bissadidi, D. Sinda, G. Vattier Bernard, J. Trouillet, F. Noireau, and J. L. Frezil. Les glossines de l'agglomeration brazzavilloise. 2. Taux d'infection et statut alimentaire des populations: Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 40(1) 1987: 59-65, Illustr.
  211. Gouteux, J. P, F. Noireau, and C. Staak. The host preferences of Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata (Diptera: Tabanidae) in an endemic area of Loa loa in the Congo: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 82(3) 1988: 167-172, Illustr.
  212. Graber, M. Parasites internes des vertebres domestiques et sauvages, autres que les primates de la Republique Populaire du Congo (d'apres la collection Cassard-Chambron, 1956-1960). Role pathogene - prophylaxie: Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 34(2) 1981: 155-167.
  213. Graber, M., and J. Gevrey. Parasites internes des Primates de la Republique Democratique du Congo (d'apres la collection Cassard-Chambron 1956-1960). Role pathogene-diagnostic prophylaxie: Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 34(1) 1981: 27-41.
  214. Graham, L. Progress in creation of the Nouabale-Ndoki Reserve in Congo: Gorilla Conservation News 6, August 1992: 5.
  215. Granjon, L. Les rongeurs myomorphes du bassin du Kouilou (Congo): Tauraco Research Report No. 4 1991: 265-278, Illustr.
  216. Gratz, N. G. 1997. The Burden of Rodent-Borne Diseases in Africa South of the Sahara. Belgian Journal of Zoology 127: 71-84.
    Abstract: There are many vector-borne diseases in Africa which cause a heavy toll in human morbidity, mortality, economic loss and suffering. Plague remains endemic in several countries in Africa; 1,269 cases of plague were reported in Africa in 1994 and these represent 43.2% of the 2,935 human cases of plague from all the world and 50% of the mortality. The 6 countries which have reported human cases of the disease as recently as 1994 are Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zaire and Zimbabwe. Natural foci of the infection remain in others.However, in addition to plague, other infections and human diseases with rodent reservoirs account for a great deal of morbidity and mortality in Africa though little actual data are available on the number of cases. The rodent-borne infections include the virus diseases Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, and, possibly Rift Valley fever. Bacterial infections include brucellosis, leptospirosis, plague, rat-bite fever, tick-borne relapsing fever and tularemia. Rickettsial infections are common and include murine typhus, tick typhus, Q-fever. There are also several helminthic infections which may be passed from rodents to man and the most important of these is schistosomiasis. One must take into account the fact that serious rodent depredations on man's foodstuffs can also lead to malnutrition.
  217. Gregory, William K, and Henry Cushier Raven. 1937. In quest of gorillas. Michigan State University Africana. New Bedford Mass.: The Darwin press.
  218. Groves, C. P, and K. Stott W Jr. Systematic relationships of gorillas from Kahuzi, Tshiaberimu and Kayonza: Folia Primatologica 32(3) 1979: 161-179, Illustr.
  219. Gubista, Kathryn R. 1999. Small Mammals of the Ituri Forest, Zaire: Diversity and Abundance in Ecologically Distinct Habitats. Journal of Mammalogy 80, no. 1: 252-62.
    Abstract: Small-mammal diversity and abundance were examined in two primary forests (mixed and mbau forests) and two disturbed habitats (secondary forest and village fields) in the Ituri Forest of Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo). Small-mammal species observed were Deomys ferrugineus, Hybomys univittatus, Hylomyscus stella, Lophuromys flavopunctatus, Malacomys longipes, Mns minutoides, Oenomys hypoxanthus, and Praomys jacksoni. Secondary forest was the most species-rid of the four habitats examined. Mixed forest exhibited significantly higher species diversity of small mammals than mbau forest. The difference in the composition of small mammals reflected the difference in the composition of tree species between species-rich (mixed and secondary) forests and the species-poor (mbau) forest. Small mammals in village fields were not true forest species but typically were found in a wide variety of habitats. This study provides a benchmark of the ecology of small mammals in the Ituri Forest of Zaire prior to increased human disturbance.
  220. . Small mammals of the Ituri Forest, Zaire: diversity and abundance in ecologically distinct habitats: Journal of Mammalogy 80(1), February, 1999: 252-262, Illustr.
  221. Hall, Jefferson S. Recensement de gorilles dans le parc national du Kahuzi-Biega au Zaire: African Primates 1(1), July 1995: 10-12.
  222. Hall, Jefferson S, Bila Isia Inogwabini, Elizabeth A Williamson, Ilambu Omari, Claude Sikubwabo, and Lee J T White. A survey of elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park lowland sector and adjacent forest in eastern Zaire: African Journal of Ecology 35(3), September, 1997: 213-223, Illustr.
  223. Hall, Jefferson S, Kristin Saltonstall, Bila Isia Inogwabini, and Ilambu Omari. 1998. Distribution, Abundance and Conservation Status of Grauer's Gorilla. Oryx 32, no. 2: 122-30.
    Abstract: This report updates the distribution and provides abundance estimates for Grauer's gorilla Gorilla gorilla graueri across its 90,000-sq-km range. The authors divide the range of Grauer's gorilla into four regions within which they identify 11 populations and estimate a total of c. 16,900 individuals. Gorillas found in the Kahuzi-Biega lowland-Kasese represent 86 per cent of the subspecies's total population. Further, approximately 67 per cent of known Grauer's gorillas inhabit Kahuzi-Biega, Maiko and Virunga National Parks. The eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) has an extremely high human population growth rate indicating that deforestation and wildlife use trends will continue to increase. Thus, in spite of the encouraging results of surveys to identify populations and characterize abundance, no Grauer's gorilla population should be considered safe from extirpation.
  224. Hall, Jefferson S., and W. Wabubindja Miya. Preliminary survey of the eastern lowland gorilla: Gorilla Conservation News 6, August 1992: 12-14.
  225. Hall, Jefferson S, Lee J. T. White, Bila Isia Inogwabini, Ilambu Omari, Hilary Simons Morland, Elizabeth A. Williamson, Kristin Saltonstall, Peter Walsh, Claude Sikubwabo, Dumbo Bonny, Kaleme Prince Kiswele, Amy Vedder, and Kathy Freeman. 1998. Survey of Grauer's Gorillas (Gorilla Gorilla Graueri) and Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Schweinfurthi) in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park Lowland Sector and Adjacent Forest in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology 19, no. 2: 207-35.
    Abstract: We describe the distribution and estimate densities of Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla gorilla graueri) and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) in a 12,770-km(2) area of lowland forest between the Lowa, Luka, Lugula, and Oku rivers in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, the site of the largest continuous population of Grauer's gorillas. The survey included a total of 480 km of transects completed within seven sampling zones in the Kahuzi-Biega National park lowland sector and adjacent Kasese regions and approximately 1100 km of footpath and forest reconnaissance. We estimate total populations of 7670 (4180-10,830) weaned gorillas within the Kahuzi-Biega lowland sector and 3350 (1420-5950) individuals in the Kasese survey areas. Within the same area, we estimate a population of 2600 (1620-4500) chimpanzees. Ape nest site densities are significantly higher within the Kahuzi-Biega lowland sector than in the more remote Kasese survey area in spite of a significantly higher encounter rate of human sign within the lowland sector of the park. Comparison of our data with information obtained by Emlen and Schaller during the first rangewide survey of Grauer's gorillas in 1959 suggests that gorilla populations have remained stable in protected areas but declined in adjacent forest. These findings underscore the key role played by national parks in protecting biological resources in spite of the recent political and economic turmoil in the region. We also show that forest reconnaissance is a reliable and cost-effective method to assess gorilla densities in remote forested areas.
  226. Hall, Jefferson S, Lee J T White, Bila Isia Inogwabini, Ilambu Omari, Hilary Simons Morland, Elizabeth A Williamson, Kristin Saltonstall, Peter Walsh, Claude Sikubwabo, Dumbo Bonny, Kaleme Prince Kiswele, Amy Vedder, and Kathy Freeman. Survey of Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla gorilla graueri) and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park lowland sector and adjacent forest in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: International Journal of Primatology 19(2), April, 1998: 207-235, Illustr.
  227. Happold, D. Mammals of the Guinea-Congo rain forest: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Section B (Biological Sciences) 104 1994(1996): 243-284, Illustr.
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  233. Harcourt, A. H, and D. Fossey. The Virunga gorillas: decline of an 'island' population: African Journal of Ecology 19(1-2) 1981: 83-97, Illustr.
  234. Harcourt, A. H, and S. Harcourt A. Insectivory by gorillas: Folia Primatologica 43(4) 1984: 229-233, Illustr.
  235. Harcourt, A. H, J. Kineman, G. Campbell, J. Yamagiwa, I. Redmond, C. Aveling, and M. Condiotti. Conservation and the Virunga gorilla population: African Journal of Ecology 21(2) 1983: 139-142, Illustr.
  236. Harcourt, A. H, and J. Stewart. Functions of alliances in contests within wild gorilla groups: Behaviour 109(3-4) 1989: 176-190, Illustr.
  237. Harcourt, A. H, and K. Stewart J. Gorilla male relationships: can differences during immaturity lead to contrasting reproductive tactics in adulthood?: Animal Behaviour 29(1) 1981: 206-210, Illustr.
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  241. Harcourt, A. H, K. Stewart J, and D. Harcourt E. Vocalizations and social relationships of wild gorillas: a preliminary analysis: Taub, D.m. & King, F.a. [Eds]. Current Perspectives in Primate Social Dynamics. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York. 1986: 1-531. Chapter Pagination: 346-356, Illustr.
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  248. Hart, J., and T. Hart. Ranging and feeding behaviour of okapi (Okapia johnstoni) in the Ituri Forest of Zaire: food limitation in a rain-forest herbivore?: Symposia of the Zoological Society of London No. 61 1989: 31-50, Illustr.
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  256. Hashimoto, Chie. Context and development of sexual behavior of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Zaire: International Journal of Primatology 18(1), February, 1997: 1-21, Illustr.
  257. Hashimoto, Chie, Takeshi Furuichi, and O. Takenaka. Matrilineal kin relationship and social behavior of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus): sequencing the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA: Primates 37(3), July 1996: 305-318, Illustr.
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    Abstract: The relationship between vegetation and ranging patterns of wild bonobos at Wamba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, was examined. Via Landsat data, we distinguished three types of vegetation-dry forest, swamp forest, and disturbed forest-at Wamba. The home ranges of the study groups changed considerably from year to year, due mainly to intergroup relationships. The population density of each group varied between 1.4 and 2.5 individuals per km(2) and was lowest during a period of population increase. Home ranges consisted mainly of dry forest. The bonobos used dry forest more frequently than the other forest types, though they also used swamp and disturbed forest almost every day. The latter types of forest seemed to be important resources for the bonobos, owing to the abundant herbaceous plants that are rich in protein and constantly available, The bonobos tended to use dry forest more frequently in the rainy season than in the relatively dry season, probably because the favored fruits in the dry forest were mostly available in the rainy season. There was no seasonal difference in the size of the daily ranging area.
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    Abstract: Predatory behavior of Pan t. troglodytes in the Ndoki Forest was confirmed by both direct observation and fecal evidence. Eight out of 214 fecal samples (3.7%), collected during 16 months, contained vertebrate tissue. The prey species were a terrestrial bird, two monkey species including crowned guenon, a squirrel, and probably a pangolin. This rate suggested that predation in the Ndoki population can occur as frequently as in other populations. Chimpanzees were also directly observed to eat an infant crowned guenon, a hornbill, and a duiker. An adult female used a branch apparently in an attempt to drive out a hornbill from its nest hole, though no bird was observed to come out. Chimpanzees were attracted to meat, and were observed begging and sharing over the meat. Predatory behavior is common to Pan and Homo, but not to Gorilla, implying that the common ancestor of the former two genera acquired this behavior after separating from gorillas