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Congo bibliography: Mammalia L-Z

Mammalia A-K

  1. Lang, E. M. Some remarks about the okapi: Izn (International Zoo News) 25(3) 1978: 25-27, Illustr.
  2. Lang, Herbert. 1925. Collection of papers, 1908-1925. New York, N.Y: American Museum of Natural history.
  3. . 1925. How squirrels and other rodents carry their young.
  4. . 1923. A new genus of African monkey, Allenopithecus / by Herbert Lang.American Museum Congo Expedition. American Museum Novitates, no. 87. no. 7. New York City: American Museum of Natural History.
  5. . 1958. Papers. New York, N.Y: American Museum of Natural History.
  6. . 1920. The White Rhinoceros of the Belgian Congo. New York: N.Y. Zoological Soc.
  7. Lang, Herbert, and American Museum of Natural History. 1900m. Congo Expedition records. 12 v.
  8. Lanjouw, A., G. Cummings, and J. Miller. Gorilla conservation problems and activities in North Kivu, eastern Zaire (February, 1996): African Primates 1(2), December 1995: 44-46, Illustr.
  9. Leirs, Herwig, James N Mills, John W Krebs, James E Childs, Dudu Akaibe, Neal Woollen, George Ludwig, Clarence J Peters, and T. G Ksiazek. Search for the Ebola virus reservoir in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: reflections on a vertebrate collection: Journal of Infectious Diseases 179(Supplement 1), February, 1999: S155-S163, Illustr.
  10. Leuthold, Walter. 1977. African ungulates : a comparative review of their ethology and behavioral ecology. Zoophysiology and Ecology, v. 8. Berlin ; New York: Springer-Verlag.
  11. Lewis, I. The spider and the pangolin: Man (London) 26(3) 1991: 513-525, Illustr.
  12. Lewison, Rebecca. Infanticide in the hippopotamus: evidence for polygynous ungulates: Ethology Ecology & Evolution 10(3), September, 1998: 277-286, Illustr.
  13. Lindsey, Susan Lyndaker, Mary Neel Green, and Cynthia L Bennett. 1999. The Okapi: mysterious animal of Congo-Zaire. 1st ed ed. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  14. Linfield, M. On the trail of the original gorilla: Bbc Wildlife 11(2), February 1993: 46-53, Illustr.
  15. Linthicum, K., and C. P. Bailey. Ecology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: Sonenshine, D.e. & Mather, T.n. [Eds]. Ecological Dynamics of Tick-Borne Zoonoses. Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford. 1994: I-Xvi, 1-447. Chapter Pagination: 392-437, Illustr.
  16. Logan, T., K. Linthicum, C. P. Bailey, D. Watts, D. Dohm, and J. Moulton. Replication of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in four species of ixodid ticks (Acari) infected experimentally: Journal of Medical Entomology 27(4) 1990: 537-542, Illustr.
  17. Logan, T., K. Linthicum, C. P. Bailey, D. Watts, and J. Moulton. Experimental transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by Hyalomma truncatum Koch: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 40(2) 1989: 207-212, Illustr.
  18. Luckins, A. G, C Llewelyn, C. D Munro, and M Murray. Effects of pathogenic trypanosomes on the mammalian reproductive system. Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health : Proceedings of an International Symposium / Jointly Organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency ... [Et Al.]: p. 351-63.
  19. Madden, C. T. Primitive Stegotetrabelodon from latest Miocene of subsaharan Africa (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 96(4) 1982: 782-796, Illustr.
  20. Mafama, N. N, T. Manya, and M. Kalombo. Epidemiologie des salmonelloses chez quelques especes animales au Zaire: Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 35(3) 1982[1983]: 221-224, Illustr.
  21. Magliocca, F., S. Querouil, and Annie Gautier Hion. 1999. Population Structure and Group Composition of Western Lowland Gorillas in North-Western Republic of Congo. American Journal of Primatology 48, no. 1: 1-14.
    Abstract: Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Pare national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants. Am. J. Primatol. 48:1-14, 1999. (C) 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  22. Maisels, F., Annie Gautier Hion, and J. P. Gautier. Diets of two sympatric colobines in Zaire: more evidence on seed-eating in forests on poor soils: International Journal of Primatology 15(5), October 1994: 681-701, Illustr.
  23. Maisels, F., J. P Gautier, A. J. Cruickshank, and J. P Bosefe. Attacks by crowned hawk eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) on monkeys in Zaire: Folia Primatologica 61(3), May 1993(1994): 157-159.
  24. Makumyaviri, M. A. Un apercu de la repartition geographique de Glossina sp. (Diptera: Glossinidae) au Zaire: Revue De Medecine Veterinaire (Toulouse) 137(2) 1986: 107-109, Illustr.
  25. Malbrant, René. 1952. Faune du Centre africain français (mammifères et oiseaux) Préf. de M. Bourdelle. Encyclopédie Biologique, 15. Paris: P. Lechevalier.
  26. Malekani, M., V. Kumar, and V. Pandey S. Hepatic capillariasis in edible Cricetomys spp. (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Zaire and its possible public health implications: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 88(5), October 1994: 569-572, Illustr.
  27. Malenky, R. K., Suehisa Kuroda, E. Vineburg, and R. W. Wrangham. The significance of terrestrial herbaceous foods for bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas: Wrangham, R.w., Mcgrew, W.c., De Waal, F.b.m. & Heltne, P.g. [Eds]. Chimpanzee Cultures. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England. 1994: I-Xxiii, 1-424. Chapter Pagination: 59-75, Illustr.
  28. Malenky, R. K, and E. Stiles W. Distribution of terrestrial herbaceous vegetation and its consumption by Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire: American Journal of Primatology 23(3) 1991: 153-169, Illustr.
  29. Malenky, R. K, N. Thompson Handler, and R. Susman L. Conservation status of Pan paniscus: Heltne, P.g. & Marquardt, L.a. [Eds]. Understanding Chimpanzees. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England. 1989: I-Xviii, 1-407. Chapter Pagination: 362-368, Illustr.
  30. Malenky, R. K, and R. Wrangham W. A quantitative comparison of terrestrial herbaceous food consumption by Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire, and Pan troglodytes in the Kibale Forest, Uganda: American Journal of Primatology 32(1) 1994: 1-12, Illustr.
  31. Malenky, R. K., R. W. Wrangham, C. A. Chapman, and E. Vineberg. Measuring chimpanzee food abundance: Tropics 2(4), November 1993: 231-244, Illustr.
  32. Mankoto, M. O. La gestion du Parc National de Kahuzi-Biega (Zaire): Cahiers D'ethologie Appliquee 8(3) 1988: 447-449, Illustr.
  33. . La situation des rhinoceros blancs (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) au parc national de la Garamba (Zaire): Cahiers D'ethologie Appliquee 8(3) 1988: 450-456, Illustr.
  34. Mankoto, M. O, J. Yamagiwa, B. Steinhauer Burkart, N. Mwanza, Tamaki Maruhashi, and T. Yumoto. Conservation of eastern lowland gorilla in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire: Thierry, B., Anderson, J.r., Roeder, J.j. & Herrenschmidt, N. [Eds]. Current Primatology. Volume 1: Ecology and Evolution. Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg. 1994: I-X, 1-398. Chapter Pagination: 113-122, Illustr.
  35. Manokhina, N V, and E V Kotenkova. The hutia of Congo (Capromys pilorides): response of males to the olfactory cues of different sex individuals: Sokolov, V.e. [Ed.]. [Issledovaniya Fauny Kuby.] Investigations on the Cuban Fauna. Nauka, Moskva. 1993: 1-161. Chapter Pagination: 159-160.
  36. Marechal, C., C Maurois, and C Chamberlan. 1998. Size (and structure) of forest elephants groups (Loxodonta africana cyclotis Matschie, 1900) in the Odzala National Park, Republic of Congo. Mammalia 62, no. (2): 297-300, Illustr.
  37. Marennikova, S. S. 'White-wild' (variola-like) poxvirus strains from rodents in equatorial Africa: Acta Virologica (Prague) (English Edition) 20(1) 1976: 80-82, Illustr.
  38. Marennikova, S. S, E. Shelukhina M, L. Khodakevich N, and N. Yanova N. Isolation of monkey pox virus from a wild African squirrel: Voprosy Virusologii 31(2) 1986: 238-241, Illustr.
  39. Mate, C., M. Colell, and M. Escobar. Preliminary observations on the ecology of forest Cercopithecidae in the Lokofe-Ikomaloki Region (Ikela, Zaire): Folia Primatologica 64(4), January 1995(1996): 196-200, Illustr.
  40. Mathiot, C., D. Fontenille, J. Digoutte, and P. Coulanges. First isolation of Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus in Madagascar: Annales De L'institut Pasteur Virology 139(2) 1988: 239-241, Illustr.
  41. Matschie, Paul. 1906. Études sur la faune mammalogique du Congo. Annales Du Musée Du Congo. Zoologie. Sér.5, T. 1, Fasc.1 [i.e. Sér.2, T. 2, Fasc.1]: Annales Du Musée Du Congo, t. 2, fasc. 1. Bruxelles.
  42. Maurois, C., C. Chamberlan, and C. Marechal. 1997. An Outline of the Diet of Forest Elephants, Loxodonta Africana Cyclotis, in the Parc National D'odzala, Republic of the Congo. Mammalia 61, no. 1: 127-30.
  43. Mbemba, C., and E. Mambou. Lexique des noms vernaculaires des mammiferes du Congo meridional: Tauraco Research Report No. 4 1991: 311-318.
  44. Mbenza, M., K. Aloni, and M. Lubuimi L. Le role des rats-taupes dans la mise en place actuelle de certains pavages residuels des sols des regions tropicales humides a saisons contrastees: Geo-Eco-Trop 11(1-4) 1987[1989]: 127-137, Illustr.
  45. McGraw, S. Census, habitat preference, and polyspecific associations of six monkeys in the Lomako Forest, Zaire: American Journal of Primatology 34(4) 1994: 295-307, Illustr.
  46. McGrew. W. C. (William Clement), Linda F. Linda Frances Marchant, and Toshisada Nishida, editors. 1996. Great ape societies. [foreword by Jane Goodall ; afterword by Junichiro Itani]. Jane Goodall, and Junichiro Itani. Cambridge ; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    Abstract: Table of Contents: Foreword : conserving great apes / Jane Goodall Toward an understanding of the orangutan's social system / Carel P. van Schaik and Jan A.R.A.M. van Hooff Comparative socio-ecology of gorillas / David P. Watts Comparative socio-ecology of Pan paniscus / Frances J. White Social ecology of Kanyawara chimpanzees : implications for understanding the costs of great ape groups / Richard W. Wrangham ... [et al.] Ranging and social structure of lowland gorillas in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon / Caroline E.G. Tutin Sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas in the Ndoki Forest, Congo / Suehisa Kuroda ... [et al.] Dietary and ranging overlap in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaïre / Juichi Yamagiwa ... [et al.] Social grouping in Taï chimpanzees / Christophe Boesch Coalition strategies among adult male chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania / Toshisada Nishida and Kazuhiko Hosaka Male rank order and copulation rate in a unit-group of bonobos at Wamba, Zaïre / Takayoshi Kano Comparing copulations of chimpanzees and bonobos : do females exhibit proceptivity or receptivity? / Yukio Takahata, Hiroshi Ihobe and Gen'ichi Idani Conflict as negotiation / Frans B.M. de Waal Language perceived : paniscus branches out / E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh ... [et al.] Reciprocation in apes : from complex cognition to self-structuring / Charlotte K. Hemelrijk Chimpanzee intelligence in nature and in captivity : isomorphism of symbol use and tool use / Tetsuro Matsuzaw Comparative positional behavior of the African apes / Diane M. Doran Nest building behavior in the great apes : the great leap forward? / Barbara Fruth and Gottfried Hohmann Comparative studies of African ape vocal behavior / John C. Mitani On which side of the apes? Ethological study of laterality of hand use / William C. McGrew and Linda F. Marchant Savanna chimpanzees, referential models and the last common ancestor / Jim Moore Reconstructions reconsidered : chimpanzee models and human evolution / Adrienne Zihlman Afterword : a new milestone in great ape research / Junichiro Itani.
  47. McNeilage, A. Ecotourism and mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes: Taylor, V.j. & Dunstone, N. [Eds]. The Exploitation of Mammal Populations. Chapman & Hall, London, Weinheim Etc. 1996: I-Xx, 1-415. Chapter Pagination: 334-344, Illustr.
  48. Meder, A., P. Burgel H, and C. Bresch. Pan paniscus in Salonga National Park: Primate Conservation No. 9 1988: 110-111, Illustr.
  49. Meester, J. A. J. 1971. The Mammals of Africa : an identification manual.Henry W. Setzer. City of Washington : Smithsonian Institution Press ; New York, N.Y. : Distributed in the U.S. and Canada by G. Braziller, c1971..
  50. . 1966-. Preliminary identification manual for African mammals. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  51. Meier, Florian. Recherches sur la variole des singes. Un exemple de collaboration entre le museum et l'organisation mondiale de la sante: Musees De Geneve No. 212 1981: 8-15, Illustr.
  52. Meirte, D. New data on Casinycteris argynnis Thomas 1910, (Megachiroptera, Pteropidae): Koninklijk Museum Voor Midden-Afrika Tervuren Belgie Annalen Zoologische Wetenschappen 237 1983: 9-17, Illustr.
  53. Meredith, M. The ivory trade in Congo: Ivory Trade Review Group. The Ivory Trade and the Future of the African Elephant. Volume 2. Technical Reports. Ivory Trade Review Group, International Development Centre, 21 St.giles, Oxford, Ox1 3la. 1989: 700pp[Unpaginated]. Chapter Pagination: 5pp., Illustr.
  54. Mertens, H. Determination de l'age chez le topi (Damaliscus korrigum Ogilby) au Parc National des Virunga (Zaire): Mammalia 48(3) 1984: 425-435, Illustr.
  55. . Recensements aeriens des principaux ongules du Parc National des Virgunga, Zaire: Terre Et La Vie 38(1) 1983: 51-64, Illustr.
  56. . Structure de population et tables de survie des buffles, topis et cobs de buffon au Parc National des Virunga, Zaire: Terre Et La Vie 40(1) 1985: 33-51, Illustr.
  57. Merz, G. Conservation of the eastern lowland gorilla: Primate Report No. 29 1991: 65-70, Illustr.
  58. . Regenwaldschutz in Ostzaire: Der Kahuzi-Biega-Nationalpark: Natur Und Museum (Frankfurt Am Main) 125(9), September 1995: 261-271, Illustr.
  59. Mihok, S, L. H Otieno, and C. S Tarimo. 1992. Trypanosome infection rates in tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) and cattle during tsetse control operations in the Kagera River region of Rwanda. Bulletin of Entomological Research 82 , no. 3: 361-67.
  60. Mishkin S R. Congo designates million-acre National Park to protect rainforest wilderness: African Wildlife Update 3(1), Jan-Feb 1994: 1, Illustr.
  61. Mitani, J. C, and J. Gros Louis. Species and sex differences in the screams of chimpanzees and bonobos: International Journal of Primatology 16(3), June 1995: 393-411, Illustr.
  62. Mitani, M. A note on primate fauna of northern Congo: Primate Research 6(1) 1990: 18-29, Illustr.
  63. . A note on the present situation of the primate fauna found from south-eastern Cameroon to northern Congo: Primates 31(4) 1990: 625-634, Illustr.
  64. . Preliminary results of the studies on wild western lowland gorillas and other sympatric diurnal primates in the Ndoki Forest, northern Congo: Itoigawa, N., Sugiyama, Y., Sackett, G.p. & Thompson, R.k.r. [Eds]. Topics in Primatology. Volume 2. Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. 1992: I-Ix, 1-412. Chapter Pagination: 215-224, Illustr.
  65. Mitani, M., Juichi Yamagiwa, Rufin A. Oko, J. M Moutsambote, Takakazu Yumoto, and Tamaki Maruhashi. Approaches in density estimates and reconstruction of social groups in a western lowland gorilla population in the Ndoki Forest, northern Congo: Tropics 2(4), November 1993: 219-229, Illustr.
  66. Mitchelmore, F., K. Beardsley, R. Barnes, and I. Douglas Hamilton. Elephant population estimates for the central African forests: Ivory Trade Review Group. The Ivory Trade and the Future of the African Elephant. Volume 2. Technical Reports. Ivory Trade Review Group, International Development Centre, 21 St.giles, Oxford, Ox1 3la. 1989: 700pp[Unpaginated]. Chapter Pagination: 9pp., Illustr.
  67. Moloo, S. K, R. O Olubayo, J. M Kabata, and I. O Okumu. 1992. A comparison of African buffalo, N'Dama and Boran cattle as reservoirs of Trypanosoma congolense for different Glossina species. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 6 , no. 3: 225-30.
  68. Montero, J. Recent hunting of various mountain gorillas during 1995.: Quercus 120, Febrero 1996: 34, Illustr.
  69. Mori, Akio. An ethological study of pygmy chimpanzees in Wamba, Zaire: a comparison with chimpanzees: Primates 25(3) 1984: 255-278, Illustr.
  70. . The meaning of agonistic behavior in a wild group of bonobos (Pan paniscus) - a use of story analysis: Primate Research 10(3), December 1994: 229-251, Illustr.
  71. Morland, Hilary Simons. Looking for Grauer's gorilla: Wildlife Conservation 98(5), September-October 1995: 46-53, Illustr.
  72. Morris, J. Frugivores in Salonga National Park, Zaire: Oryx 26(3) 1992: 178.
  73. Moutsambote, J., T. Yumoto, M. Mitani, T. Nishihara, Sigeru Suzuki, and Suehisa Kuroda. Vegetation and list of plant species identified in the Nouabale-Ndoki Forest, Congo: Tropics 3(3-4), March 1994: 277-293, Illustr.
  74. Mposhy, M., C. Binemo Madi, and B. Mudakikwa. Incidence de la tuberculose bovine sur la sante des populations du nord Kivu (Zaire): Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 36(1) 1983: 15-18, Illustr.
  75. Mugangu, T., and M. L. Jr. Hunter. Aquatic foraging by Hippopotamus in Zaire: response to food shortage?: Mammalia 56(3) 1992: 345-349, Illustr.
  76. Mugangu, T., M. L. Jr Hunter, and J. Gilbert. Food, water, and predation: a study of habitat selection by buffalo in Virunga National Park, Zaire: Mammalia 59(3) 1995: 349-362, Illustr.
  77. Mugangu Trinto, E. Sur l'ecoethologie comparee du cob de roseaux et du topi du Parc National des Virunga. 1. Considerations competitives et evolutionnaires: Mammalia 53(4) 1989: 511-524, Illustr.
  78. Murnyak, D. F. Censusing the gorillas in Kahuzi-Biega National Park: Biological Conservation 21(3) 1981: 163-176, Illustr.
  79. . The gorillas of Kahuzi-Biega, Zaire: African Wildlife 36(3) 1982: 87-91, Illustr.
  80. Musée du Congo, ed. 1906. Annales Du Musée Du Congo. Bruxelles: le Musée.
  81. Musée du Congo belge, ed. 1944. Annales Du Musée Du Congo Belge Annalen Van Het Museum Van Belgisch Congo. C, Dierkunde. Reeks II. Tervuren, Belgique: Le Musée.
  82. Mwanza, N., J. Yamagiwa, T. Yumoto, and Tamaki Maruhashi. Distribution and range utilization of eastern lowland gorillas: Itoigawa, N., Sugiyama, Y., Sackett, G.p. & Thompson, R.k.r. [Eds]. Topics in Primatology. Volume 2. Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. 1992: I-Ix, 1-412. Chapter Pagination: 283-300, Illustr.
  83. Nadchatram, M., and A. Fain. Description of a new species of Gahrliepia from Zaire (Acari: Prostigmata: Trombiculidae): Revue De Zoologie Africaine 94(3) 1980: 521-524, Illustr.
  84. Nadchatram, M., and F. Puylaert. A new and unusual species of Gahrliepia (Acari, Trombiculidae) from a rare African insectivore: Revue De Zoologie Africaine 101(4) 1987: 469-472, Illustr.
  85. Ndunda, M., Tamaki Maruhashi, T. Yumoto, and J. Yamagiwa. Conservation of eastern lowland gorillas in the Masisi region, Zaire: Primate Conservation No. 9 1988: 111-114, Illustr.
  86. Nganga, I., G. Makosso Vheiye, and J. Fay. Congo: East, R. Antelopes. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. Part 3. West and Central Africa. Iucn, Gland, Switzerland. 1990: I-Iv, 1-171. Chapter Pagination: 120-126, Illustr.
  87. Nicoll, Martin E., Galen B. Rathbun, and Tree-Shrew and Elephant-Shrew Specialist Group IUCN/SSC Insectivore. 1990. African Insectivora and elephant-shrews : an action plan for their conservation. IUCN/SSC Action Plans for the Conservation of Biological Diversity, [16]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
  88. Nishihara, T. 1995. Feeding Ecology of Western Lowland Gorillas in the Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Congo. Primates.
    Abstract: The feeding ecology of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) living in the Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, northern Congo, was surveyed for one full year. This is the first record to make clear the seasonal changes in the feeding habits of gorillas in a whole year, living in the primary lowland forest almost completely undisturbed. Fecal contents, feeding traces, and direct observation were analyzed with reference to a fruit availability survey. Although the gorillas fed largely on fruits in the forest, their basic diet was fibrous parts of plants, including shoots, young leaves, and bark. Terrestrial herbaceous vegetation, such as monocotyledons of the Marantaceae and aquatic herbs having much protein content and minerals, were frequently eaten even in the fruiting season. As these highly nutritious fibrous foods were superabundant all year, the major foods of the Ndoki gorillas seemed to be those plants. However, they selected fruits as their alternative food resources in the fruiting season. Gorillas foraged on many fruit species, while showing strong preferences for some particular species. The swamp forest, including marshy grasslands, was an important and regular habitat for the Ndoki gorillas
  89. Nishihara, T. Feeding ecology of western lowland gorillas in the Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Congo: Primates 36(2), April 1995: 151-168, Illustr.
  90. . A preliminary report on the feeding habits of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Ndoki Forest, northern Congo: Itoigawa, N., Sugiyama, Y., Sackett, G.p. & Thompson, R.k.r. [Eds]. Topics in Primatology. Volume 2. Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. 1992: I-Ix, 1-412. Chapter Pagination: 225-240, Illustr.
  91. Nishihara, T., and Suehisa Kuroda. Soil-scratching behaviour by western lowland gorillas: Folia Primatologica 57(1) 1991: 48-51, Illustr.
  92. Noireau, F., A. Toudic, J. P. Gouteux, N. Bissadidi, J. L. Frezil, and J. Duteurtre. Les glossines de l'agglomeration brazzavilloise. 3. Role vecteur dans les trypanosomoses animales et humaine: Revue D'elevage Et De Medecine Veterinaire Des Pays Tropicaux 40(1) 1987: 67-69, Illustr.
  93. Norton, B. The mountain gorilla: Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury. 1990: 1-128, Illustr.
  94. NSosso, D. Problems of management of the African elephant in Conkouati nature reserve at Kouilou (Congo).: Pachyderm 22 1996: 50-57, Illustr.
  95. Oko, Rufin A. The present situation of conservation for wild gorillas in the Congo: Itoigawa, N., Sugiyama, Y., Sackett, G.p. & Thompson, R.k.r. [Eds]. Topics in Primatology. Volume 2. Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. 1992: I-Ix, 1-412. Chapter Pagination: 241-243.
  96. Pages, J. R, and A. Theron. Schistosoma intercalatum: variations morphologiques et biometriques des oeufs en relation avec la localisation chez l'hote definitif et l'origine geographique du parasite (Cameroun et Zaire): Annales De Parasitologie Humaine Et Comparee 64(3) 1989: 208-216, Illustr.
  97. Pandey, G. S, A Mweene, A. K Suzuki, A Nambota, and T Kaji. 1994. Dermatophilosis (cutaneous streptothricosis) in kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases.
    Abstract: Extensive dermatitis caused by Dermatophilus congolensis was identified in two kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in Lochinvar National Park of Zambia. The lesions were characterized by thickening of the skin crusts, and nodule formation. Almost all parts of the body were affected. Histologically there was an exudative dermatitis with acanthosis parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, and an exudate rich in neutrophils. This is the first known report of dermatophilosis in lechwe
  98. Pandey, V. S. Observations on gastro-intestinal helminths of zoo animals in Lubumbashi, Zaire - a coprological survey: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 26(4) 1978: 360, Illustr.
  99. Pandey, V. S, and Z. Mbemba Z. Bovine cysticercosis in the Republic of Zaire: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 24(3) 1976: 321-324, Illustr.
  100. Pandey, V. S, and A. Verhulst. Parasitic diseases of animals in the Republic of Zaire: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 24(3) 1976: 307-313, Illustr.
  101. Pavlakis, P. P. Plio-Pleistocene Hippopotamidae from the Upper Semliki: Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir No. 1 1990: 203-223, Illustr.
  102. Pendje, G. La frugivorie de Civettictis civetta (Schreiber) et son role dans la dispersion des graines au Mayombe: Revue D'ecologie La Terre Et La Vie 49(2), Avril-Juin 1994: 107-116, Illustr.
  103. Petter, A. J, and B. Brochier. Cercogylus africanus n. g., n. sp. (Angiostrongylidae, Metastrongyloidea, Nematoda), parasite du primate africain Cercocebus galeritus chrysogaster: Systematic Parasitology 13(3) 1989: 197-200, Illustr.
  104. Petter, F. Les souris africaines du groupe sorella (rongeurs, murides): Mammalia 45(3) 1981: 313-320, Illustr.
  105. Pickford, M. Late Miocene anthracothere (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from tropical Africa: Comptes Rendus De L'academie Des Sciences Serie Ii Mecanique-Physique-Chimie Sciences De L'univers Sciences De La Terre 313(6) 1991: 709-715, Illustr.
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    Abstract: Resident and migrant birds and several mammal species utilize natural forest openings to exploit foraging opportunities that are otherwise rare or absent in the dense forest of equatorial Africa. Certain bird species exhibit protocooperative and commensal relationships with these mammals. In a large marshy opening, five species of birds exploited the actions of large terrestrial mammals to flush prey, two species of birds used two species of aquatic mammals to expose prey, and another bird species fed directly on mammalian ectoparasites, African jacanas had a higher foraging rate when associated with gorillas and elephants than when alone, and great egrets had a higher capture efficiency when elephants were present. In a second opening, covered by a shallow, algae-laden pond, African jacanas, finfeet, and Hartlaub's ducks competed to remove arthropod ectoparasites from forest buffalo and bongo antelope, both of which consistently reacted to the alarm calls of jacanas and Hartlaub's ducks. At least ten species of birds directly benefit from associations with mammals. Indirect benefits were also noted as African jacanas, black crakes, and palm-nut vultures selected food items from elephant and buffalo dung.
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    Abstract: Table of Contents: Preface / Oliver A. Ryder, Ph.D. The present-day trade routes and markets for rhinoceros products / Esmond Bradley Martin Rhino population dynamics, illegal hunting and law enforcement in the lower Zambezi Valley in Zimbabwe / R.B. Martin Global management of rhinos / Thomas J. Foose What will it take to save the rhino? / Mark R. Stanley Price Theory and pragmatism in the conservation of rhinos / N. Leader-Williams Fifty million years of rhinoceros evolution / Donald R. Prothero Testing rhinoceros subspecies by multivariate analysis / Colin P. Groves Molecular genetic studies of Southern African rhinoceros / Eric H. Harley and Colleen O'Ryan Genetic differentiation of white rhinoceros subspecies: diagnostic differences in mitochondrial DNA and serum proteins / M. George, Jr., L.G. Chemnick, D. Cisova, E. Gabrisova, A. Stratil, and O.A. Ryder Molecular evolution in living species of rhinoceros, implications for conservation / George D. Amato, Mary Ashley and John Gatesy Determination of species and geographic origin of rhinoceros horn by isotopic analysis and its possible application to trade control / A.J. Hall-Martin, N.J. van der Merwe, J.A. Lee-Thorp, R.A. Armstrong, C.H. Mehl, S. Struben and R. Tykot Infrasound from the Rhinocerotidae / Elizabeth K. von Muggenthaler, John W. Stoughton, Joseph C. Daniel, Jr. Recent advances in reproductive monitoring of rhinos in captivity and in the wild / Joanne E. Hindle, J. Vahala and J.K. Hodges Progress in reproductive physiology research in rhinoceros / R.W. Godfrey, L. Srivastava, P.T. Russell and B.L. Dresser Reproductive procedures and restraint for rhinoceroses / N.E. Schaffer, R.S. Jeyendran and B. Beehler African rhinos: current numbers and distribution / C.K. Gakahu Conserving rhinos in Garamba National Park / Kes and Fraser Smith Strategies for the conservation of rhino in Zaire / Mbayama Atalia Development and management of rhino sanctuaries in South Africa: the effects of socio economic and political changes in southern Africa on developments / Nick Steele Development of the Zimbabwe national conservation strategy for black rhinoceros / W.K Nduku and R.B. Martin Greater one-horned rhinoceros populations in Nepal / Eric Dinerstein Space and habitat use by a small re-introduced population of greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Royal Bardia National Park in Nepal. A preliminary report / Shant Raj Jnawali and Per Wegge Management of the reintroduced great one horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Dudhwa National Park Uttar Pradesh, India / S.P. Sinha and V.B. Sawarkar Genetic variation in the greater one-horned rhino and implications for population structure / Gary F. McCracken and E. Jean Brennan In-situ conservation of the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis): a Malaysian experience / Mohd. Khan Bin Momin Khan, Burhanuddin Hj. Mohd. Nor, Ebil Yusof, Mustafa Abdul Rahman Conservation and management of Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) in Vietnam / Charles Santiapillai, Pham Mong Giao, Vu Van Dung Conservation and management of Sumatran rhino(Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) in Indonesia / Charles Santiapillai, Kathy MacKinnon Conservation and management of Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) in Indonesia / Widodo S. Ramono, Charles Santiapillai and Kathy MacKinnon Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) captive propagation in relation to its conservation / Linda Prasetyo and Muchidin Noordin Preliminary determination of nutritional requirements of the pregnant black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) / Petr Spala, Petr Hradecky Breeding experience with northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) at Zoo Dvur Kralove / M. Svitalsky, J. Vahala, and P. Spala Management of translocated white rhino in South Africa / J.L. Anderson Rhinoceros SSP programs in North America: an overview / Robert W. Reece Rhinoceros breeding at the San Diego Wild Animal Park / Randy Rieches The management of black and Sumatran rhinos at Port Lympne Zoopark, U.K. / C. Furley Health concerns and veterinary research in the North American black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) population / R. Eric Miller Black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis capture and translocation techniques and boma management as used in Namibia / L. Geldenhuys Health data gained from black rhino immobilized for relocation / David A. Jessup, Michael D. Kock, Peter Morkel Capture and translocation of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Zimbabwe: management modifications to reduce stress and mortalities / Michael D. Kock Veterinary management of three species of rhinoceroses in zoological collections / Richard A. Kock and Julia Garnier Pathological findings in captive rhinoceros / Richard J. Montali and Scott B. Citino Dehorning of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis) in Namibia / P.vdB. Morkel, L.J. Geldenhuys Mucosal and cutaneous ulcerative syndrome in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) / Linda Munson The clinical history of the adult female Sumatran rhinoceros, called 'Subur' / C. Furley Perinatal mortality in rhinos / Susan J. Noble and Oliver A. Ryder.
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  180. Susman, R. L, N. Badrian, A. Badrian, and N. Handler T. Pygmy chimpanzees in peril: Oryx 16(2) 1981: 179-183, Illustr.
  181. Suzuki, Sigeru, Suehisa Kuroda, and T Nishihara. 1995. Tool-set for termite-fishing by chimpanzees in the Ndoki Forest, Congo. Behaviour 132, no. (3-4), March 1995: 219-35, Illustr.
    Abstract: Observations strongly indicate chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) of the Ndoki forest use two types of tools, 'perforating sticks' and 'fishing probes' in combination for termite (Macrotermes muelleri) fishing. Perforating sticks were always made of small, stout branches or young saplings of Thomandersia laurifolia (Acanthaceae), about 10 mm in diameter, with lengths of about 50 cm. Fishing probes were made from the flexible stems of Marantaceae species, and were about five mm in diameter, with lengths of about 50 cm. Approximately 15 cm of one end of the tool was usually shaped into a brush. It is likely that chimpanzees make small holes in the termite mound wall to attain access into the termite nest inside, then they insert the probe into the holes and cat the major and minor soldier termites which bite the brush-like end. Of 214 chimpanzee feces collected, 50% contained termite remains of this species, and this fecal analysis shows that termite-eating behavior occurred all the year around, and did not correspond to the seasonality of rainfall or termite activity on the ground. Chimpanzees in the Ndoki forest seem to be able to obtain termites from the deep subterranean nest throughout the year by using their tool-set. Such a tool-set might be responsible for the higher frequency of termite-eating in Ndoki chimpanzees than those of chimpanzees in other sites who fish for termites using only probes. This newly described behavior shows that chimpanzees habitually manipulate a tool on an object which they previously modified with another type of tool
  182. Swanepoel, R. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: Palmer, S.r.; Lord Soulsby & Simpson, D.i.h. [Eds]. Zoonoses: Biology, Clinical Practice, and Public Health Control. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York Etc. 1998: I-Xix, 1-948. Chapter Pagination: 311-317.
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  184. Sylla, M., J. P. Cornet, and B. Marchand. 1997. Description of Alectorobius (Reticulinasus) Camicasi Sp. Nov. (Acari : Ixodoidea : Argasidae), a Parasite of Fruit Bats Rousettus Aegyptiacus Occidentalis in Senegal. Acarologia 38, no. 3: 239-54.
    Abstract: A new tick species - Alectorobius (Reticulinasus) camicasi n. sp., a parasite of fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus occidentalis, in Senegal - is described. This new species is based on laboratory reared males, females, nymphs and larvae. Alectorobius (Reticulinasus) camicasi n. sp. is closely related to the two other African species: Alectorobius (Reticulinasus) salahi (Hoogstraal, 1953), a parasite of the fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) in Egypt; and Alectorobius (Reticulinasus) faini (Hoogstraal, 1960), a parasite of Rousettus leachii (Smith) in the Congo. The new Senegalese species is easily distinguished from the Egyptian species by shape of dorsal surface of idiosoma of adults, coral setae and hypostomal formula of the larva. It is very similar to the Congolese species, but differs from it by the appearance of the antero-dorsal surface-of idiosoma of male, and by the hypostomal formula, dorsal plate, length of fourth palpal article, and the position and distance between some setae of the larva.
  185. Takahata, Yukio, Hiroshi Ihobe, and Gen'ichi Idani. Comparing copulations of chimpanzees and bonobos: do females exhibit proceptivity or receptivity?: Mcgrew, William C.; Marchant, Linda F. & Nishida, Toshisada [Eds]. Great Ape Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York & Melbourne. 1996: I-Xx, 1-328. Chapter Pagination: 146-155, Illustr.
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  187. Takehisa, J., B. Bikandou, E. Ido, I. Mboudjeka, R. M'vouenze, M. Y. Nzoukoudi, Y. Harada, Y. Yamaguchi-Kabata, T. Miura, M. M'pandi, H. J. Parra, P. M'pele, and M. Hayami. 1999. Natural Infection of Chimpanzees With New Lentiviruses Related to Hiv-1/Sivcpz. Journal of Medical Primatology 28, no. 4-5: 169-73.
    Abstract: To determine newly identified lentiviruses, termed simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)cpz97CG4 and SIVcpz97CG6. from two wild-captured juvenile brother chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, subgenomic pol (integrase, 288 bp), 5'tat/rev-env C1 (including vpu, 354 bp) and env (C2-C4, 544 bp) gene fragments were amplified and sequenced. The analysis revealed significantly discordant phylogenetic positions of SIVcpz97CG in each genomic region. In the trees derived from partial env sequences (V3), both SIVcpz strains clustered in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype A. However. in the trees derived from partial pol (integrase) and 5'tat/rev-env C1 (including vpu) sequences, they clustered independently from any of the known HIV-1 subtypes. Especially, in the 5'tat/rev-vpu tree, they branched before the root of HIV-1 group M. These findings suggest that these Congolese SIVcpz genomes are mosaic, probably due to a recombinational event in the recent past, and it provides evidence for a rather recently occurring cross-species transmission between humans and chimpanzees.
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    Abstract: After having been located on maps, 36 forest clearings were explored and the presence of large mammals was recorded in the Northern area of the Pare National d'Odzala, Congo. 13 species of large mammals were observed. Elephants, buffaloes, gorillas, sitatungas, bongos, forest hogs, and giant forest hogs were the most common visitors. At the Maya Nord clearing, the rates of presence of buffaloes, elephants and gorillas were particularly high (71%, 37% and 34% of the observation time respectively) while a group of sitatungas was resident.Differences in the rates of clearing frequentation was found to result from several factors including the past hunting pressure on elephants. Forest clearings constitute an important food source for large mammals which enter clearings for mineral salts contained in soil, water and herbaceous vegetation. They are of great value to maintain the population densities of mammals as well as to develop ecotourism. However, they are also ideal sites for ivory poaching. The richest clearings we explored are not included within the limits of the park: extending these boundaries is a priority.
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  253. Weber, Neal A. Neal Albert, Murl Deusing, James L. James Lippitt Clark, and American Museum of Natural History. 1947-1948. Central African Expedition. Central African Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History (1947-1948). 1 videocassette (500 min.) : si., col. ; 3/4 in. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
    Abstract: Filmed during AMNH Central African Expedition, 1948. The film material taken on the AMNH Central African Expedition, 1947-1948, is unedited, raw footage. The five-month-long expedition, led by James Lippitt Clark, AMNH director of preparation and installation, is well-documented in field notes and reports. It is not reflected in the film that the expedition moved haphazardly back and forth among the countries visited: Kenya, Uganda, Belgian Congo (now Zaire), and French Equatorial Africa (now Chad, Gabon, Congo, and the Central African Republic). Because the material is so random, it is described here by subject matter. A control file in the AMNH Film Archives correlates this material to shot-by-shot descriptions of the film. The material was filmed by Murl Deusing, who also worked on the Walt Disney nature films of the 1950s. Views of the following birds are included: weaverbirds (nest building); white-backed vultures and Ruppell's vultures (gliding on air currents and feeding); ostriches (running); rory bustards (feeding); crowned cranes (feeding and long shot of courtship display); ground hornbills (feeding); flamingoes; hawks; kites; hammerheads; cattle egrets; pelicans; cormorants; anhingas; white storks (European birds wintering in Africa); marabou storks (feeding); and geese. Because the material is poorly organized and unedited, bird footage from other films in the Archives would better serve the researcher. The footage of mammals includes several scenes filmed at the Government Elephant Training Center in Cangara Na Bodia, Belgian Congo (now Zaire), where young elephants are domesticated and trained: the elephants are corralled, fed and bathed; one juvenile elephant is laid down with great difficulty and given topical medication. There are also many scenes of a wide variety of animals grazing in the plains. Other mammals seen are: hippopotamuses, defassa waterbucks, impalas, Ankole cattle, hyenas, L'Hoest's monkeys, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, zebras, topis (some aggressive behavior), goats, cape eland, colobus monkeys, vervet monkeys, kob, blackbacked and sidestriped jackals, giraffes, warthogs, Cape buffaloes, bat-eared foxes, lions, black rhinoceroses, oryx, hartebeests, southern reedbucks, and dikdiks. The African peoples included in the film are Masai, Nandi, Mbuti (i.e. Bambuti), Zande, N'Sakkara, with some unidentified people in Zaire and some others who apear to be Mangbetu. Among the Masai in Kajiado, Kenya, moran (warriors) participate in mock fights with shields and spears. Activities such as bleeding cattle, milking cows and tending goats in a small enclosure are seen, as well as close-ups of individuals and views of children, dung-plastered dwellings and an entire manuatta (homestead). Also in Kenya, Nandi harvest maize and thatch a barn roof. In the Ituri Forest and in nearby Beni, Belgian Congo (now Zaire), Mbuti (i.e. Bambuti) make bark cloth, prepare arrows, carry nets and spears, smoke, dance, cook, and shoot bows and arrows. Their leaf-covered beehive dwellings, mothers with babies, and close-ups of individuals are also seen. People of an unidentified tribe fish with huge cone-shaped nets at Stanley Falls (Boyoma Falls) in the Congo River near Stanleyville (Kisangani); one man wears a feather headdress, leather armlets, cloth breechclout, and a necklace made from big cats' teeth. Mangbetu (probaby) people with elongated heads (formed by binding the heads of infants to create a long narrow skull) in the Belgian Congo (now Zaire) are also seen. The next section of the film depicts peoples of what is now the Central African Republic and was then part of French Equatorial Africa. Natives of the village of Birao use a huge mortar and pestle; also seen are their cone on cylinder houses, some with animal paintings on the stucco walls, and personal adornment including beaded hairdresses (close-ups), nose and ear ornaments, cicatrices, and coin necklaces. Zande people near Zamio process cassava from root to flour (close-ups), use mortar and pestle; and Zande men weave mats (close-ups) and Zande women wear leaves and cloth pelvic aprons. N'Sakkara people of Bangassou thatch a roof, carve a wooden bowl, play bao or a similar board game, strip reeds for weaving, make a storage basket, play with a hoop, make mats, plaster a house, use mortar and pestle, grind grain into flour between two stones, make jewelry, work wood with a lathe, and winnow and grind termites for food. Neal Albert Weber, the expedition's entomologist, conducted extensive research in the field; footage of his study of ants and termites comprise a large part of this film. Weber himself appears in the film sucking up ants and termites with a hose, collecting others with a funnel, and "cooking" them with his fireless cooker. There is also footage of various types of ant nests, bivouacs (large knots of ants clinging to one another), siafu or driver ants (nesting sites, individuals, close-ups, and long shots of marching columns, and large larva sacs), termites (with wings and without) and termite queens, termite nests (on the ground, in thorn trees, opened and unopened gauls or carton nests), stalkeyed flies, cassava grasshoppers (molting, copulating), a scarab beetle, and close-ups of a tree snail and of millipedes. A turtle, a python, and a gold and green frog are also seen.
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